Pyrosequencing identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing
© Drancourt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 6 October 2009
Accepted: 2 December 2009
Published: 2 December 2009
The worldwide expanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family is associated with treatment failure and relapse. Its identification currently relies on spoligotyping and conventional sequencing. We developed pyrosequencing as an alternative method for its identification.
Pyrosequencing found a G/A substitution in the Rv0927c-pstS3 intergenic spacer and a RD105 deletion, identifying 8/104 M. tuberculosis isolates as W-Beijing isolates. In addition, pyrosequencing found a previously unreported TGC deletion in the Rv0927c gene of W-Beijing isolates. Total concordance was found between the pyrosequencing data and conventional sequencing, as well as reference molecular identification. Multispacer Sequence Typing assigned the W-Beijing isolates to the Asian lineage and the 96 non-W-Beijing isolates to the Euro-American lineage (P < 10-5). The W-Beijing isolates were all susceptible to streptomycin, rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide; no resistance-associated mutations were detected in these eight W-Beijing isolates. There were no statistically significant differences in the antibiotic susceptibility of W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing isolates (p = 0.2, X2 test). Pyrosequencing correctly identified M. tuberculosis organisms in 26/26 sputum specimens exhibiting acid-fast bacilli. Pyrosequencing results were obtained within four hours, incurring an estimated cost of 1.86 €/test.
Pyrosequencing of the Rv0927c gene and adjacent intergenic spacer is an efficient, low-cost technique for the rapid identification of W-Beijing isolates.
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to a single infectious agent in adults, killing about three million people every year . One-third of the human population is thought to be infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main bacterial agent of human tuberculosis . DNA fingerprinting analyses discriminated several M. tuberculosis lineages [3, 4], including the W-Beijing family initially found among Chinese isolates . W-Beijing isolates were subsequently shown to be highly prevalent throughout Asia and to have spread to other continents and countries, including the USA and South Africa , exhibiting a prevalence as high as 62% in some geographic areas . In addition to their worldwide diffusion, W-Beijing isolates induce a more severe pathology than other M. tuberculosis genotypes by eliciting a reduced level of cytokine and a lack of associated Th1-type immunity . W-Beijing organisms have been also been linked to drug resistance, treatment failure and relapse [9, 10].
These data emphasize the importance of rapid identification of W-Beijing isolates for epidemiology and infection control. W-Beijing isolates can be identified by spoligotyping, which reveals the absence of spacers 1-34 and the specific A1 insertion of an IS 6110 element in the origin of replication . Genomic microarray approaches revealed several large sequence polymorphisms which classified W-Beijing isolates into five subtypes [4, 11]. In particular, RD105 was found to be specific to W-Beijing isolates . Reverse genetics demonstrated one deletion in the Rv0927c gene and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Rv0927c-pstS3 intergenic spacer, both of which are specific to W-Beijing organisms . However, time and cost as well as technical demand of these methods still limit their wide application in laboratories. Efforts towards the development of more rapid and affordable methods yielded the development of polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis .
Pyrosequencing technology is a sequencing method that is mostly used for short-read sequencing and SNP analyses. It has been used for the identification of various bacteria including mycobacteria , as well as for the detection of drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis [15–17].
In the present study, we developed an Rv0927c gene and adjacent intergenic spacer pyrosequencing method for the rapid identification of W-Beijing isolates, and applied this method to identify W-Beijing isolates among M. tuberculosis isolates made in our laboratory over two years.
A collection of 104 M. tuberculosis isolates cultured from respiratory tract specimens as part of the routine activity in our laboratory in 2005-2006 were identified by conventional methods . For each isolate, one colony grown on 5% sheep blood agar (Biotechnology Appliquée, Dinan, France) was removed using a sterile loop, and mixed with freezing beads for storage at -20°C prior to inactivation and DNA extraction with a Qiagen kit (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France). This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee, Marseilles.
Conventional DNA sequencing, reference molecular identification, and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MS) genotyping
The Rv0927c gene and Rv0927c-pstS3 intergenic region were PCR amplified as previously described in the presence of negative controls consisting of PCR mix without DNA . PCR products were sequenced by Sanger sequencing using the BigDye Terminator v1.1 Cycle Sequencing kit (Applied Biosystems, Courtaboeuf, France). Sequencing electrophoresis was performed with a 3100 genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems) in both directions. The sequences were edited using the Auto assembler program (Applied Biosystems) and aligned using CLUSTAL W http://bioinfo.hku.hk/services/analyseq/cgi-bin/clustalw_in.pl and NPS Multalin multiple alignment http://npsa-pbil.ibcp.fr. M. tuberculosis isolates identified as belonging to the W-Beijing family were confirmed by parallel detection of the RD105 deletion as previously described . M. tuberculosis isolates were also genotyped using MST to assess their phylogeographical lineage, as previously described .
Primers used for amplification and pyrosequencing analysis of Rv0927c in M. tuberculosis isolates.
RV0927c R. biotin
Antibiotic resistance analysis
The susceptibility to streptomycin, rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide was tested according to standard methods . Rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol-resistance were screened among M. tuberculosis isolates based on characterization of resistance-associated hot mutations, as previously described by pyrosequencing .
A correlation between M. tuberculosis isolates identified as belonging to the W-Beijing family and their assignment into a phylogeographical lineage defined by MST was tested using the Chi Square test (Epi Info version 3.4.1, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA). We also evaluated differential susceptibility to antibiotics between W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing isolates.
We selected 26 respiratory tract specimens, which were positive by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and cultured the identified M. tuberculosis using conventional methods . Pyrosequencing was performed directly on inactivated clinical specimens. Eight negative controls consisted of respiratory tract specimens that were negative for Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and these controls remained negative in culture
Results and Discussion
Rapid expansion of the M. tuberculosis W-Beijing family in various parts of the world urged the development of molecular tools for its rapid detection in the clinical laboratory. Current methods rely on PCR pattern analysis, but lack sequencing confirmation for the RD105 deletion method and PCR-SSCP method  or rely on conventional Sanger sequencing, a one-day long procedure that delays detection . In the present study, we took advantage of the ease of pyrosequencing technology to develop a method for the rapid detection of W-Beijing isolates.
Assignment of M. tuberculosis to a geographic lineage by MST.
Number of isolates
The fact that pyrosequencing found a previously unreported deletion in W-Beijing isolates illustrates the advantage of sequencing over non-sequencing-based methods of identification. Sequencing-based methods allow for the discovery of new genotypes within bacterial species, while latter methods could miss such variants and could yield inaccurate identification data. While sequencing is of interest for accurate identification of M. tuberculosis isolates, conventional Sangers'method is a time and resources-consuming method. In the present study, pyrosequencing was performed within five hours, including a four-hour PCR. The cost of a pyrosequencing reaction is ~1.86 €, less than our conventional DNA sequencing reaction, which is ~2.64 €. The objectivity of this technique is extremely useful for medical microbiology applications, as the skilled interpretation of bands required for RFLP  is not necessary. Finally, the ability to perform the pyrosequencing assay using inactivated clinical samples has been demonstrated previously  and provides a considerable advantage; for example, this high-throughput assay can prevent multi-drug resistant episodes via rapid screening of the W-Beijing isolates. In this study, PCR products were generated from all 26 respiratory tract, acid fast bacilli-positive clinical specimens, and negative controls remained negative. Pyrosequencing identified no polymorphisms in the Rv0927c-pstS3 intergenic spacer or Rv0927c gene, thereby identifying these organisms as non-W-Beijing; MST further assigned them to the Euro-American lineage .
The 7.7% prevalence of W-Beijing isolates we found in a large cosmopolitan area of Southern France is higher than that reported in other French areas  and in Western Europe . The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the 104 M. tuberculosis isolates was assessed by molecular and conventional methods. The eight W-Beijing isolates characterized herein were susceptible to 5/5 antibiotics tested, unlike those reported in other studies . No statistically significant differences were observed regarding in vitro susceptibility between eight W-Beijing and 96 non-W-Beijing isolates (p = 0.2, X2 test). Molecular analyses revealed no mutations associated with drug resistance in the eight W-Beijing isolates. However, there is no constant association between a W-Beijing family and drug resistance . For example, the acquisition rate for rpoB gene point mutations conferring rifampin resistance is similar in W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing isolates .
In conclusion, we developed a pyrosequencing-based method for rapid, clear, and accurate detection of W-Beijing M. tuberculosis isolates and respiratory tract specimens. In this study, W-Beijing isolates comprised 7.7% of M. tuberculosis and belonged to the East Asian lineage. The low-cost assay described herein could be used to complement current routinely used techniques, and could replace the time-consuming molecular tests presently used to identify W-Beijing isolates.
The authors acknowledge the technical expertise of Christian De Fontaine.
- Dye C, Garnett GP, Sleeman K, Williams BG: Prospects for worldwide tuberculosis control under the WHO DOTS strategy. Directly observed short-course therapy. Lancet. 1998, 352: 1886-1891. 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)03199-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Raviglione MC, Snider DE, Kochi A: Global epidemiology of tuberculosis. Morbidity and mortality of a worldwide epidemic. JAMA. 1995, 273: 220-226. 10.1001/jama.273.3.220.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferdinand S, Valetudie G, Sola C, Rastogi N: Data mining of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genotyping Results using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units validates the clonal structure of spoligotyping-defined families. Res Microbiol. 2004, 155: 647-654. 10.1016/j.resmic.2004.04.013.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gagneux S, DeRiemer K, Van T, Kato-Maeda M, de Jong BC, Narayanan S, Nicol M, Niemann S, Kremer K, Gutierrez MC, Hilty M, Hopewell PC, Small PM: Variable host-pathogen compatibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 2869-2873. 10.1073/pnas.0511240103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Soolingen D, Qian L, de Haas PE, Douglas JT, Traore H, Portaels F, Qing HZ, Enkhsaikan D, Nymadawa P, van Embden JD: Predominance of a single genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in countries of east Asia. J Clin Microbiol. 1995, 33: 3234-3238.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cowley D, Govender D, February B, Wolfe M, Steyn L, Evans J, Wilkinson RJ, Nicol MP: Recent and rapid emergence of W-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2008, 47: 1252-1259. 10.1086/592575.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zignol M, Hosseini MS, Wright A, Weezenbeek CL, Nunn P, Watt CJ, Williams BG, Dye C: Global incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2006, 194: 479-485. 10.1086/505877.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lopez B, Aguilar D, Orozco H, Burger M, Espitia C, Ritacco V, Barrera L, Kremer K, Hernandez-Pando R, Huygen K, van Soolingen D: A marked difference in pathogenesis and immune response induced by different Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003, 133: 30-37. 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02171.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bifani PJ, Mathema B, Liu Z, Moghazeh SL, Shopsin B, Tempalski B, Driscol J, Frothingham R, Musser JM, Alcabes P, Kreiswirth BN: Identification of a W variant outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via population-based molecular epidemiology. JAMA. 1999, 282: 2321-2327. 10.1001/jama.282.24.2321.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lan NT, Lien HT, Tung LB, Borgdorff MW, Kremer K, van Sooligen D: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and risk for treatment failure and relapse, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003, 1633: e1635-Google Scholar
- Tsolaki AG, Gagneux S, Pym AS, Goguet de la Salmoniere YO, Kreiswirth BN, van Soolingen D, Small PM: Genomic deletions classify the Beijing/W strains as a distinct genetic lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005, 43: 3185-3191. 10.1128/JCM.43.7.3185-3191.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang X, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Gao F, Jin J, Zhang X, Lu C, Gao Q, Chen J, Wang H: Identification of unique genetic markers in Rv0927c among Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing strains. Microbes Infect. 2007, 9: 241-246. 10.1016/j.micinf.2006.11.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang X, Lu C, Gao F, Wang F, Zhang W, Portugal I, Xu P, Wang Ying Zhang H: A rapid and simple method for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing strains based on detection of a unique mutation in Rv0927c byPCR-SSCP. Microb Infect. 2009, 419: e423-Google Scholar
- Cristea-Fernstrom M, Olofsson M, Chryssanthou E, Jonasson J, Petrini B: Pyrosequencing of a short hypervariable 16S rDNA fragment for the identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria--a comparison with conventional 16S rDNA sequencing and phenotyping. APMIS. 2007, 115: 1252-1259. 10.1111/j.1600-0643.2007.00707.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao JR, Bai YJ, Wang Y, Zhang QH, Luo M, Yan XJ: Development of a pyrosequencing approach for rapid screening of rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005, 9: 328-332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jureen P, Engstrand L, Eriksson S, Alderborn A, Krabbe M, Hoffner SE: Rapid detection of rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Pyrosequencing technology. J Clin Microbiol. 2006, 44: 1925-1929. 10.1128/JCM.02210-05.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marttila HJ, Mäkinen J, Marjamäki M, Soini H: Prospective evaluation of pyrosequencing for the rapid detection of isoniazid and rifampin resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009, 8: 33-38. 10.1007/s10096-008-0584-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pfyffer GE, Funke-Kissling P, Rundler E, Weber R: Performance characteristics of the BDProbeTec system for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1999, 37: 137-140.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Djelouadji Z, Arnold C, Gharbia S, Raoult D, Drancourt M: Multispacer sequence typing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping. PLoS ONE. 2008, 3: e2433-10.1371/journal.pone.0002433.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Braden CR, Crawford JT, Schable BA: Quality assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping in a large laboratory network. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002, 8: 1210-1215.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arnold C, Westland L, Mowat G, Underwood A, Magee J, Gharbia S: Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based differentiation and drug resistance detection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from isolates or directly from sputum. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005, 11: 122-130. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2004.01034.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bezanahary H, Baclet MC, Sola C, Gazaille V, Turlure P, Weinbreck P, Denis F, Martin C: Molecular strain typing contribution to epidemiology of tuberculosis in Limousin (1998 to 2006). Med Mal Infect. 2008, 38: 309-317. 10.1016/j.medmal.2008.02.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toungoussova OS, Mariandyshev A, Bjune G, Sandven P, Caugant DA: Molecular epidemiology and drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Archangel prison in Russia: predominance of the W-Beijing clone family. Clin Infect Dis. 2003, 37: 665-672. 10.1086/377205.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bifani PJ, Mathema B, Kurepina NE, Kreiswirth BN: Global dissemination of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family strains. Trends Microbiol. 2002, 10: 45-52. 10.1016/S0966-842X(01)02277-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rindi L, Lari N, Cuccu B, Garzelli C: Evolutionary pathway of the Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on genomic deletions and mutT genes polymorphisms. Infect Genet Evol. 2009, 9: 48-53. 10.1016/j.meegid.2008.09.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qian L, Abe C, Lin TP, Yu MC, Cho SN, Wang S, Douglas JT: rpoB genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family isolates from East Asian countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2002, 40: 1091-1094. 10.1128/JCM.40.3.1091-1094.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar