Three non-autonomous signals collaborate for nuclear targeting of CrMYC2, a Catharanthus roseus bHLH transcription factor
© Gantet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 2 May 2010
Accepted: 12 November 2010
Published: 12 November 2010
CrMYC2 is an early jasmonate-responsive bHLH transcription factor involved in the regulation of the expression of the genes of the terpenic indole alkaloid biosynthesis pathway in Catharanthus roseus. In this paper, we identified the amino acid domains necessary for the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2.
We examined the intracellular localization of whole CrMYC2 and of various deletion mutants, all fused with GFP, using a transient expression assay in onion epidermal cells. Sequence analysis of this protein revealed the presence of four putative basic nuclear localization signals (NLS). Assays showed that none of the predicted NLS is active alone. Further functional dissection of CrMYC2 showed that the nuclear targeting of this transcription factor involves the cooperation of three domains located in the C-terminal region of the protein. The first two domains are located at amino acid residues 454-510 and 510-562 and contain basic classical monopartite NLSs; these regions are referred to as NLS3 (KRPRKR) and NLS4 (EAERQRREK), respectively. The third domain, between residues 617 and 652, is rich in basic amino acids that are well conserved in other phylogenetically related bHLH transcription factors. Our data revealed that these three domains are inactive when isolated but act cooperatively to target CrMYC2 to the nucleus.
This study identified three amino acid domains that act in cooperation to target the CrMYC2 transcription factor to the nucleus. Further fine structure/function analysis of these amino acid domains will allow the identification of new NLS domains and will allow the investigation of the related molecular mechanisms involved in the nuclear targeting of the CrMYC2 bHLH transcription factor.
Catharanthus roseus L. G. Don. produces terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Some TIAs have pharmaceutical properties, such as the hypotensive compound ajmalicine and the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine. The biosynthesis of TIAs is induced by jasmonate , and the expression of several genes encoding enzymes of the TIA biosynthesis pathway are coordinately regulated by the APETALA2 (AP2)-domain ORCA3 (octadecanoid derivative-responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain) transcription factor (TF) in response to this hormone . The Orca3 gene is itself regulated by jasmonate and possesses a jasmonate-responsive element (JRE) in its promoter . This JRE is composed of 1) a qualitative region that switches on Orca3 expression in response to jasmonate and 2) a quantitative element that acts as an enhancer of transcription. The qualitative region is a G-box-like element (AACGTG). An early jasmonate-responsive bHLH TF, CrMYC2 (AF283507), binds this qualitative element and activates the expression of the Orca3 gene (our unpublished data). CrMYC2 was isolated by a yeast one-hybrid screen using a G-box sequence (CACGTG) as bait . Transcription factors such as CrMYC2 can be used as metabolic engineering tools to improve the production of valuable secondary metabolites in plant cells . However, the use of transcription factors as metabolic engineering tools supposes that the transcription factor is properly targeted to nucleus when overexpressed in the cell.
CrMYC2 belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TF family. The bHLH TF family comprises 162 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and 167 genes in Oryza sativa, but the functions of only few of these genes have been characterized [6–8]. In particular, protein regions involved in the targeting of bHLH transcription factors to the nucleus have been functionally identified in only a few of them [7–18]. The nuclear import of proteins is often mediated by specific sequences, called nuclear localization signals (NLSs). NLSs are recognized by receptors (importin α and importin β) that allow the interaction of the protein with the nuclear pore and the translocation of the protein complex into the nucleus . Several NLS sequences have been characterized. Short stretches of basic amino acids (aa), including both monopartite ((K/R) 4/6) and bipartite ((K/R) 2 X10-12 (K/R) 3) sequences, are present in various nuclear proteins [20–23]. In addition, structure/function analysis of different nuclear proteins has revealed that a variety of non-conserved sequences are also involved in nuclear targeting [24–26].
Concerning plant bHLH TFs, only one structure/function analysis of nuclear localization, the one completed for the maize R protein, has been performed in detail. The maize R protein is involved in the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis in various organs in maize . The authors demonstrated that this protein contains three different NLSs (A, M, and C). NLS-A contains arginine residues but not lysine (characteristic of some viral NLSs). NLS-C contains hydrophobic amino acids surrounding basic residues, and NLS-M is rich in basic amino acids, similar to classical monopartite NLSs. The truncated N-terminal or C-terminal part of this protein can be targeted to nucleus only if both NLS-A and NLS-M or NLS-C and NLS-M are simultaneously present .
In this paper, we present a structure/function analysis of the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2. Different sequences from CrMYC2 were fused with GFP and transiently expressed in epidermal onion cells. Our data show that none of the basic aa-rich sequences identified as putative NLSs are functional alone and that the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2 involves cooperation among three different domains of the C-terminal part of the protein.
The cassette containing the CaMV 35S promoter, a multicloning site and the mgfp5 sequence followed by a T-Nos terminator sequence was removed from pCambia-1302 with SphI and inserted into the SphI site of pEMBL18. This plasmid construct was called GFP-pEMBL18. The GFP-pEMBL18 plasmid was used to clone, in phase with the 3' extremity of the mgfp5 coding sequence, the full-length Crmyc2 cDNA (GenBank accession number AF283507), Crmyc2 deletion mutants, or annealed oligonucleotides corresponding to putative NLSs. These putative NLSs were identified by bioinformatics analysis (http://wolfpsort.org/) or a manual search for stretches of basic amino acids similar to classical mono- and bipartite- NLSs [26, 28–30].
Oligonucleotides used for the amplification of full-length or deletion mutants of Crmyc2 or for the reconstitution of sequences encoding the putative NLSs of the CrMYC2 protein
Nucleotide sequences of primers used to amplify the Crmyc2 fragments or to reconstitute the short coding sequences of the NLSs
5'-CCGCCATGG CCATTTGCAGGCTTTCTCCC 3'
Biolistic transformation of onion epidermal cells
Commercially available white onions were surface disinfected with 70% ethanol. After dissection, the internal epidermis layer was peeled and placed face up on solid MS medium (8 g agar/liter) without vitamins (Duchefa, M0222) in 55-mm diameter Petri dishes. The particle bombardment transformation was carried out using a PDS-1000 BioRad system with 1800 Psi rupture disks (BioRad) under reduced pressure of 30 mm Hg. Plasmid DNA (10 μg) was coated on tungsten M-25 particles (BioRad) in 25 μL of 2.5 M CaCl2 and 10 μL of 0.1 M spermidine. Particles were homogenized for 2 min by ultra-sonication and sedimented by gravity for 15 min. Supernatant (15 μL) was removed, and after a short sonication step, 4 μL of the remaining particle mixture was deposed on a macrocarrier disk (BioRad). During bombardments, samples were placed 6 cm from the stopping screen. Onion cells were transformed with the plasmids carrying different CrMYC2 (full length or deletion) GFP fusions and NLS-GFP fusions under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. After transformation, the samples were incubated for 12 h in the dark at 25°C.
Epidermal onion cells were observed with an epifluorescence microscope (Olympus BX51) equipped with a digital camera (Olympus DP50) and the corresponding software (OLYMPUS ANALYSIS). The GFP fluorescence was imaged with a blue excitation filter set (460-490 nm excitation filter, 515 nm cut-off filter). After staining with DAPI (600 nM), fluorescence was observed with UV filter set (360 nm excitation filter, 460 cut-off filter).
Four putative NLSs are present in the CrMYC2 sequence
The deduced amino acid sequence from the open reading frame of the Crmyc2 cDNA is characterized by a conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain (residues 511-572) typical of the bHLH class of transcription factors. The basic domain of bHLH transcription factors is involved in the interaction with DNA [32–35], and the HLH motif is involved in protein dimerization [36, 37] and participates in DNA binding specificity [38, 39].
In an attempt to verify whether these NLS candidates were conserved in related species, we determined if these NLSs are present in the sequences of close orthologs in the A. thaliana and O. sativa genomes using the GreenPhyl database (http://greenphyl.cirad.fr/v2/cgi-bin/index.cgi). The alignment of the CrMYC2 sequence with A. thaliana AtMYC2/RAP1/AtbHLH006/At1g32640.1, rice 0s10g42430.1 orthologs and three other highly phylogenetically related A. thaliana sequences revealed that NLS1 and NLS2 were weakly conserved. In contrast NLS3 and NLS4 were well conserved (Figure 2), thus suggesting that they were conserved during evolution based on their function.
Putative NLSs identified in the CrMYC2 protein are not functional alone in plant cells
The N-terminal part of CrMYC 2 is not required for its nuclear localization
To identify the region of CrMYC2 involved in its translocation to the nucleus, full-length and deletion mutants of CrMYC2 were fused to GFP (Figure 1) and expressed in onion cells. The results are presented in Figure 3. All of the data were obtained with fusions made at the N-terminal extremity of GFP except for the full-length CrMYC2 protein, which was successfully expressed only when it was fused to the C-terminal end of GFP. The fusion between GFP and full-length CrMYC2 exhibited a different localization compared to the GFP alone: the fluorescence was mostly observed in the nucleus but also, some small spots in the cytoplasm were observed (Figure 3D right). The nucleus localization of CrMYC2 was confirmed by staining the genomic DNA in cells with DAPI (Figure 3D left). Similar data were obtained with transformation experiments using a lower amount of the expression plasmid (2 μg or 4 μg), suggesting that the cytoplasmic spots were not the result of the overexpression of the GFP-CrMYC2 fusion protein. The F1 and F2 fusions accumulated strongly in the nucleus (Figure 3I-J). These data show that the N-terminal part of the protein between residues 1 and 454 was not strictly required for the nuclear import of CrMYC2 into the nucleus. In addition, the amino acids sequence 1-168 could bear a signal responsible for the retention of the GFP fusions in spots in the cytoplasm.
Different domains act in collaboration for CrMYC2 subcellular localization
To localize the other domains involved in CrMYC2 nuclear targeting, further functional dissection of the C-terminal part (aa 454-699) was done.
The F3 fusion had a cellular localization pattern similar to that of the GFP-CrMYC2 fusion (Figure 3K). This suggested that the 454-510 region of the protein contains a signal allowing the complete targeting of the protein to the nucleus and/or preventing its accumulation in spots in the cytoplasm. Nevertheless, when expressed alone in fusion with GFP (F4), this 454-510 sequence did not have an effect on the subcellular localization of the GFP fluorescence compared to the expression of GFP alone (Figure 3L and 3A). This last result indicated that the signal contained in this part of the protein collaborates with other signals located in the 510-699 region of CrMYC2 for its nuclear targeting.
The subcellular localization of the F5 fusion, corresponding to the 510-699 region lacking the 47 C-terminal amino acids, was similar to the cellular localization of the F3 fusion, showing that the C-terminal 47 amino acids of CrMYC2 did not play any role in subcellular localization (Figure 3M). When an additional 35 C-terminal amino acids (F6 fusion) were removed (Figure 3N), the localization of the green fluorescence in the cell was identical to the one observed for GFP alone, suggesting that the 617-652 aa portion of the protein participates in the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2. Nevertheless, the F7 fusion (608-699), which includes this region but lacks the main N-terminal part of the protein, failed to be actively targeted to the nucleus (Figure 3O). When the 510-562 portion was removed (F8 fusion) from F5, the subcellular localization was identical to the one of GFP alone (Figure 3P). This result suggested that another domain located in the 510-652 part of the protein was also necessary for proper nuclear targeting. All of these data showed that the targeting of the CrMYC2 protein to the nucleus involved different domains located at aa 454-562 and aa 617-652 and that these domains acted in collaboration.
Discussion and conclusions
In this study, we investigated the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2, a C. roseus bHLH TF. The contribution of the different domains of this protein in nuclear targeting was evaluated in epidermal onion cells transiently expressing GFP protein fusions.
Proteins with a molecular weight less than 40-60 kDa are able to enter the nucleus by passive diffusion . This was illustrated by the cellular localization of GFP (MW: 28 kDa) alone, which was both cytoplasmic and nuclear. This default distribution allows the detection of NLSs and of motifs that sequester the protein in the cytoplasm. This notion was validated by the results obtained for GFP fused with the NLS from the SV40 large T antigen, which was primarily localized in the nucleus, and for the fusion of GFP with a "KDEL" endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, which was localized only in the cytoplasm (Figure 3B-C).
The search for conserved basic NLS motifs in the CrMYC2 sequence revealed four putative NLSs [20, 30, 41]: one bipartite, NLS1, and three monopartite NLSs: NLS2, NLS3 and NLS4. None of these four NLSs were able to actively target GFP to the nucleus individually. When the CrMYC2 sequence was compared to the sequence of two orthologs, A. thaliana AtMYC2/RAP1/AtbHLH006/At1g32640.1 and O. sativa Os10g42430.1, and with three other phylogenetically related A. thaliana bHLH proteins (Figure 2), we found that the NLS1 and NLS2 sequences are weakly conserved. On the contrary, the NLS3 and NLS4 sequences are well conserved among the six proteins. In addition, NSL1 and NLS2 are located in the 1-454 N-terminal part of CrMYC2, which was not necessary for the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2, whereas NLS3 and NLS4 are located in the C-terminal part of the protein, which contained the signals necessary for nuclear targeting. In conclusion, NLS1 and NLS2 are likely not involved in the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2, whereas NLS3 and NLS4 could play a role in the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2 by acting in a collaborative way.
The functional dissection of CrMYC2 revealed that the C-terminal region (aa 454-699) of the protein contains the signals that are necessary and sufficient for nuclear targeting of the protein. This observation is in accordance with previous data obtained for the orthologous A. thaliana protein AtMYC2. Using GFP-protein fusions expressed in tobacco and A. thaliana cells, it has been shown that the full-length AtMYC2-GFP fusion is actively targeted to the nucleus, whereas a mutant lacking the C-terminal part comprising the bHLH domain has the same subcellular distribution profile as GFP alone . These results suggest that conserved motifs located in the C-terminal region of the protein are involved in the nuclear targeting of the CrMYC2 and AtMYC2 proteins.
To identify the motifs involved in nuclear targeting, further functional analysis of the C-terminal part of CrMYC2 was done. The data obtained showed that three regions, aa 454-510, aa 510-562 and aa 617-652, are necessary for the nuclear targeting of CrMYC2, but individually, none of these sequences was able to target the GFP fusion to the nucleus, suggesting that these regions cooperate to drive CrMYC2 to the nucleus. The bHLH TF family is widespread in eukaryotic organisms and is a large gene family in A. thaliana and O. sativa[42–45]. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the identification of the NLS(s) involved in their nuclear targeting. One of the more detailed studies concerns the bHLH TF encoded by the R gene from maize . Three active NLS have been identified in this protein: NLS-A (aa 100-109, GDRRAAPARP), NLS-M (aa 419-428, MSERKRREKL) and NLS-C (aa 598-610, MISESLRKAIGRK). NLS-M and NLS-C are independently sufficient to direct the GUS protein to the nucleus. Interestingly, further analysis demonstrated that these NLSs act cooperatively to target the R protein to the nucleus. Efficient targeting is obtained only if both NLS-A and NLS-M or NLS-C and NLS-M are present. NLS-M corresponds to the basic part of the bHLH and is similar to NLS4 in CrMYC2. Some authors have suggested that the DNA-binding function of several classes of transcription factors have evolved to have NLS functions [29, 46]. The two other NLSs, NLS-A and NLS-C, are not found in CrMYC2. Although the NLSs of these two plant bHLH TF are different, in both cases the cooperation of different regions of the protein is necessary to target the protein to the nucleus. In CrMYC2, the regions of aa 454-510 and aa 510-562 contain NLS3 and NLS4, respectively. These two NLS sequences are well conserved among five related TF from A. thaliana and O. sativa and are likely the functional NLS sequences of these regions. The aa 617-652 region does not contain sequences reminiscent of known NLSs. Nevertheless, this fragment is located in a very well-conserved sequence located after the bHLH domain between aa 614 and 690 (Figure 2). The aa 617-652 region is rich in conserved basic amino acids and could correspond to a new non-autonomous NLS. A variety of non-conventional signals, very diverse in sequences, have been described for the nuclear targeting of several proteins [24, 47, 48] including bHLH related transcription factors . Full-length CrMYC2, F3 and F5 GFP fusions were localized in the nucleus but were also found in concentrated spots into the cytoplasm. We do not have adequate evidence to know if this profile corresponds to the artificial retention of these fusion proteins in vesicles or organelles or if this localization pattern has biological significance. A recent study reported the localization of a tobacco bHLH protein, NtWIN4, in plastids, suggesting the possibility that this nuclear transcription factor evolved from a plastid-resident regulatory factor . However, the sequence responsible for NtWIN4 plastid targeting is not present in CrMYC2.
Further studies using point mutation experiments will be necessary to determine the amino acids important for the NLS function of the three functional conserved NLS domains identified in the CrMYC2 transcription factor.
List of abbreviations
green fluorescent protein
nuclear localization signal
Octadecanoid derivative-responsive Catharanthus AP-2 domain 3
terpenoid indole alkaloids.
This work was supported by the Ministère de l'Education Nationale, de la Recherche et de la Technologie, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, the University François Rabelais of Tours and the association Biotechnocentre. Sabah Hedhili holds a doctoral fellowship from the Region Centre.
- Gantet P, Imbault N, Thiersault M, Doireau P: Necessity of a functional octadecanoic pathway for indole alkaloid synthesis by Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultured in an auxin-starved medium. Plant Cell Physiol. 1998, 39: 220-225.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van der Fits L, Memelink J: The jasmonate-inducible AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor ORCA3 activates gene expression via interaction with a jasmonate-responsive promoter element. Plant J. 2001, 25: 43-53. 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2001.00932.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vom Endt D, Soares M, Silva E, Kijne JW, Pasquali G, Memelink J: Identification of a bipartite jasmonate-responsive promoter element in the periwinkle ORCA3 transcription factor gene which interacts specifically with AT-hook DNA-binding Proteins. Plant Physiol. 2007, 144: 1680-1689. 10.1104/pp.107.096115.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pre M, Sibéril Y, Memelink J, Champion A, Doireau P, Gantet P: Isolation by the yeast one-hybrid system of cDNAs encoding transcription factors that bind to the G-box element of the strictosidine synthase gene promoter from Catharanthus roseus. Int J Bio-chrom. 2000, 5: 229-244.Google Scholar
- Gantet P, Memelink J: Transcription factors: tools to engineer the production of pharmacologically active plant metabolites. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002, 23: 563-9. 10.1016/S0165-6147(02)02098-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rajani S, Sundaresan V: The Arabidopsis myc/bHLH gene ALCATRAZ enables cell separation in fruit dehiscence. Curr Biol. 2001, 11: 1914-22. 10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00593-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang YJ, Zhang ZG, He XJ, Zhou HL, Wen YX, Dai JX, Zhang JS, Chen SY: A rice transcription factor OsbHLH1 is involved in cold stress response. Theor Appl Genet. 2003, 107: 1402-9. 10.1007/s00122-003-1378-x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lorenzo O, Chico JM, Sanchez-Serrano JJ, Solano R: JASMONATE-INSENSITIVE1 encodes a MYC transcription factor essential to discriminate between different jasmonate-regulated defense responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004, 16: 1938-50. 10.1105/tpc.022319.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shieh MW, Wessler SR, Raikhel NV: Nuclear targeting of the maize R protein requires two nuclear localization sequences. Plant Physiol. 1993, 101: 353-61. 10.1104/pp.101.2.353.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ni M, Tepperman JM, Quail PH: PIF3, a phytochrome-interacting factor necessary for normal photoinduced signal transduction, is a novel basic helix-loop-helix protein. Cell. 1998, 95: 657-67. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81636-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fairchild CD, Schumaker MA, Quail PH: HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000, 14: 2377-91.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huq E, Quail PH: PIF4, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH factor, functions as a negative regulator of phytochrome B signaling in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2002, 21: 2441-50. 10.1093/emboj/21.10.2441.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chinnusamy V, Ohta M, Kanrar S, Lee B-h, Hong X, Agarwal M, Zhu J-K: ICE1: a regulator of cold-induced transcriptome and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2003, 17: 1043-1054. 10.1101/gad.1077503.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jung KH, Han MJ, Lee YS, Kim YW, Hwang I, Kim MJ, Kim YK, Nahm BH, An G: Rice Undeveloped Tapetum1 is a major regulator of early tapetum development. Plant Cell. 2005, 17: 2705-22. 10.1105/tpc.105.034090.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim JA, Lee M, Kim YS, Woo JC, Park CM: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor regulates cell elongation and seed germination. Mol Cells. 2005, 19: 334-41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yi K, Wu Z, Zhou J, Du L, Guo L, Wu Y, Wu P: OsPTF1, a novel transcription factor involved in tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice. Plant Physiol. 2005, 138: 2087-96. 10.1104/pp.105.063115.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Al-Sady B, Ni W, Kircher S, Schafer E, Quail PH: Photoactivated phytochrome induces rapid PIF3 phosphorylation prior to proteasome-mediated degradation. Mol Cell. 2006, 23: 439-46. 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim J, Kim HY: Molecular characterization of a bHLH transcription factor involved in Arabidopsis abscisic acid-mediated response. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006, 1759: 191-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Merkle T: Nuclear import and export of proteins in plants: a tool for the regulation of signalling. Planta. 2001, V213: 499-517. 10.1007/s004250100621.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kalderon D, Roberts BL, Richardson WD, Smith AE: A short amino acid sequence able to specify nuclear location. Cell. 1984, 39: 499-509. 10.1016/0092-8674(84)90457-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robbins J, Dilworth SM, Laskey RA, Dingwall C: Two interdependent basic domains in nucleoplasmin nuclear targeting sequence: identification of a class of bipartite nuclear targeting sequence. Cell. 1991, 64: 615-23. 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90245-T.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varagona MJ, Schmidt RJ, Raikhel NV: Nuclear localization signal(s) required for nuclear targeting of the maize regulatory protein Opaque-2. Plant Cell. 1992, 4: 1213-27. 10.1105/tpc.4.10.1213.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krizek BA, Sulli C: Mapping sequences required for nuclear localization and the transcriptional activation function of the Arabidopsis protein AINTEGUMENTA. Planta. 2006, V224: 612-621. 10.1007/s00425-006-0253-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishidate T, Yoshihara S, Kawasaki Y, Roy BC, Toyoshima K, Akiyama T: Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal in Sam68. FEBS Lett. 1997, 409: 237-41. 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00455-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Michael WM, Eder PS, Dreyfuss G: The K nuclear shuttling domain: a novel signal for nuclear import and nuclear export in the hnRNP K protein. EMBO J. 1997, 16: 3587-98. 10.1093/emboj/16.12.3587.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Christophe D, Christophe-Hobertus C, Pichon B: Nuclear targeting of proteins: how many different signals?. Cell Signal. 2000, 12: 337-41. 10.1016/S0898-6568(00)00077-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ludwig SR, Wessler SR: Maize R gene family: tissue-specific helix-loop-helix proteins. Cell. 1990, 62: 849-51. 10.1016/0092-8674(90)90259-H.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dingwall C, Laskey RA: Nuclear targeting sequences--a consensus?. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991, 16: 478-81. 10.1016/0968-0004(91)90184-W.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cokol M, Nair R, Rost B: Finding nuclear localization signals. EMBO Rep. 2000, 1: 411-5. 10.1093/embo-reports/kvd092.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nair R, Carter P, Rost B: NLSdb: database of nuclear localization signals. Nucl Acids Res. 2003, 31: 397-399. 10.1093/nar/gkg001.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuijt SJH, Lamers GEM, Rueb S, Scarpella E, Ouwerkerk PBF, Spaink HP, Meijer AH: Different subcellular localization and trafficking properties of KNOX class 1 homeodomain proteins from rice. Plant Mol Biol. 2004, 55: 781-96.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murre C, McCaw PS, Baltimore D: A new DNA binding and dimerization motif in immunoglobulin enhancer binding, daughterless, MyoD, and myc proteins. Cell. 1989, 56: 777-83. 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90682-X.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Voronova A, Baltimore D: Mutations that disrupt DNA binding and dimer formation in the E47 helix-loop-helix protein map to distinct domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990, 87: 4722-6. 10.1073/pnas.87.12.4722.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferre-D'Amare AR, Pognonec P, Roeder RG, Burley SK: Structure and function of the b/HLH/Z domain of USF. EMBO J. 1994, 13: 180-9.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma PC, Rould MA, Weintraub H, Pabo CO: Crystal structure of MyoD bHLH domain-DNA complex: perspectives on DNA recognition and implications for transcriptional activation. Cell. 1994, 77: 451-9. 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90159-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baxevanis AD, Vinson CR: Interactions of coiled coils in transcription factors: where is the specificity?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993, 3: 278-85. 10.1016/0959-437X(93)90035-N.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferre-D'Amare AR, Prendergast GC, Ziff EB, Burley SK: Recognition by Max of its cognate DNA through a dimeric b/HLH/Z domain. Nature. 1993, 363: 38-45. 10.1038/363038a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nair SK, Burley SK: Recognizing DNA in the library. Nature. 2000, 404 (715): 717-8.Google Scholar
- Winston RL, Gottesfeld JM: Rapid identification of key amino-acid-DNA contacts through combinatorial peptide synthesis. Chem Biol. 2000, 7: 245-51. 10.1016/S1074-5521(00)00099-5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lange A, Mills RE, Lange CJ, Stewart M, Devine SE, Corbett AH: Classical nuclear localization signals: definition, function, and interaction with importin alpha. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 5101-5. 10.1074/jbc.R600026200.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dingwall C, Sharnick SV, Laskey RA: A polypeptide domain that specifies migration of nucleoplasmin into the nucleus. Cell. 1982, 30: 449-58. 10.1016/0092-8674(82)90242-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heim MA, Jakoby M, Werber M, Martin C, Weisshaar B, Bailey PC: The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity. Mol Biol Evol. 2003, 20: 735-47. 10.1093/molbev/msg088.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH: The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Plant Cell. 2003, 15: 1749-70. 10.1105/tpc.013839.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Duan X, Jiang H, Sun Y, Tang Y, Yuan Z, Guo J, Liang W, Chen L, Yin J: Genome-wide analysis of basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in rice and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006, 141: 1167-1184. 10.1104/pp.106.080580.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qu LJ, Zhu YX: Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2006, 9: 544-9. 10.1016/j.pbi.2006.07.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- LaCasse EC, Lefebvre YA: Nuclear localization signals overlap DNA- or RNA-binding domains in nucleic acid-binding proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995, 23: 1647-56. 10.1093/nar/23.10.1647.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Siomi H, Dreyfuss G: A nuclear localization domain in the hnRNP A1 protein. J Cell Biol. 1995, 129: 551-560. 10.1083/jcb.129.3.551.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kodama Y, Sano H: Evolution of a basic helix-loop-helix protein from a transcriptional repressor to a plastid-resident regulatory factor: involvement in hypersensitive cell death in tobacco plants. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281: 35369-80. 10.1074/jbc.M604140200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamaki A, Kudoh J, Shimizu N, Shimizu Y: A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins SIM1 and SIM2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 313: 482-8. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.11.168.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.