Protection of retinal cells by resveratrol against antibody-induced cytotoxicity. (A) E1A.NR3 cells were grown in 96-well plates (100 μl) for 72 hr in the presence of 0.8 mg/ml purified Rec-1 or Enol-1 alone, or antibodies plus 40 μM resveratrol (Res). Cell survival was measured by MTT assay. Each treatment was replicated three times, and the bars represent an average percentage of cell survival for 3 experiments. The statistical significance of each treatment was estimated against controls using one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney t-tests. ** = p < 0.01. (B) Effects of resveratrol on antibody-induced intracellular [Ca2+] levels. Cells were incubated in a fluorescent dye for 30 min before the addition of 50 μl of 0.8 mg/ml Rec-1 and Enol-1 or (C) 2 μM thapsigargin (TPG), individually or after 15 min pre-treatment with 40 μM resveratrol. Each treatment was replicated three times and the experiment was repeated thrice. The statistical significance of each treatment was estimated against DMSO controls using one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney t-tests. * = p ≤ 0.05; ** = p ≤ 0.01.