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Table 1 Included studies regarding risk factors in sport and/or occupation described in terms of author/year/country, sport/occupation, design of the study (cross sectional, case-control or cohort), population, exposure and results.

From: Risk factors for developing jumper's knee in sport and occupation: a review

1e author/year/country Sport/Occupation Research design Population Exposure Results
Cook/2000a/
Australia
Sport Cohort
prospective
(16 months)
N = 26, 8 males, 18 females,
A = [14–18]
All a-symptomatic at baseline
Activity: elite basketball players
-sport hrs/week: unknown,
-14.5 hrs of weight-bearing training per week
-significant increase in tendon abnormalities was associated with significant increase in training hrs/week
Cook/2000b/
Australia
Sport Cross- sectional N = 163, two groups:
-N = 134, elite basketball players, 70 males 64 females, A = 16 [14–18], H = 186 [162–211], W = 75 [47–98]
-N = 29, swimming athletes acting as controls, 17 males, 12 females, A = 17 [31–21], H = 174 [154–192], W = 62 [38–82]
-sport hrs/week basketball players:
15 hrs exercise, 12 hrs weight bearing
-sport hrs/week swimmers:
17 hrs exercise, 3 hrs weight bearing
-at least 7 percent of the basketball players had jumper's knee but none of the swimmers
Crossley/2007/Australia Sport Case control N = 58, three groups;
-no symptoms, N = 31, A = 24 ± 6, H = 177 ± .0.9, W = 71 ± 11
-unilateral JK, N = 14, A = 26 ± 7, H = 178 ± 1, W = 80 ± 16
-bilateral JK, N = 13, A = 28 ± 8, H = 176 ± 1, W = 82 ± 14
Activity: tennis, volleyball, basketball, netball or soccer
Sport hrs/week:
- no symptoms group:
3 hrs
- unilateral group:
4 hrs
- bilateral group:
7 hrs
-significantly more hrs of sport per week in bilateral group compared to both unilateral and no symptoms group
-no significant difference in hrs of sport per week in unilateral group compared to the no symptoms group
Ferretti/1984/
Italy
Sport Cross- sectional N = 407, both males and females
Activity: elite volleyball players
Sport hrs/week:
-between 2 and more than 14 hrs
- the number of playing and training sessions (> 14 hrs/week) per week increased the prevalence of jumper's knee
-years of play had no significant effect, but peak is seen at third year of participation
-playing surface (p < 0.05) (parquet better than cement)
-type of training: no effect
Gaida/2004/
Australia
Sport Case control N = 39, all elite female basketball players, three groups;
-no JK (controls), N = 24, A = 21 ± 3, H = 176 ± 7, W = 74 ± 9
-unilateral JK, N = 8, A = 20 ± 2, H = 178 ± 10, W = 73 ± 13
-bilateral, N = 7, A = 21 ± 3, H = 178 ± 9, W = 74 ± 9
Activity: basketball players
Sport hrs/week:
-Unilateral and bilateral group on average: 12 hrs
-controls on average: 9 hrs
-subjects with 1 or 2 hypoechoic regions trained 2.6 (± 1.4) hrs/week more than controls
Kettunen/2002/Finland Sport Case control Prospective
(15 years)
N = 47, (all males) two groups:
-N = 14, no JK (controls)
-N = 18, with JK (cases)
Activity: ball players, long distance runners
Sport hrs/week:
Not mentioned but based on table 2: about 10
-no difference in duration, frequency and intensity of work and leisure time physical activity between two groups at follow up
Lian/2003/
Norway
Sport Case control N = 47, all males two groups:
-N = 24 with JK (cases), A:22 ± 4 H = 191 ± 7, W = 87 ± 8
-N = 23 no JK (controls), A = 22 ± 4, H = 190, W = 82 ± 8
Activity: volleyball
Sport hrs/week:
cases: 8 hrs, controls:7 hrs
Weight training hrs/week:
cases: 5 hrs, controls: 2 hrs
-no association between hours of training and JK (p > 0.05)
-more weight training is associated with JK (p < 0.01)
Malliaras/
2006/
Australia
Sport Cross sectional N = 113, 73 males and 40 females,
A:26 ± 5, H = 79 ± 13, W = 181 ± 0
activity: volleyball
-years of exposure: 4.6 ± 1.6
-sport hrs/week:
8.4 ± 4.6
-no association between the years of volleyball playing and the weekly hours of training with tendon abnormality and/or pain
Taunton/2002/Canada Sport Cohort prospective
(two years)
Patellar tendinopathy (JK)
N = 96, A:34,
55 males, H = 171, W = 83
41 females, H = 159, W = 64
Activity: Running
-years of exposure: 10.0 ± 3.7
-sport hrs/week:
6.1 ± 0.7
-no association between hours of training and JK (p > 0.05)
Warden/2007/USA (Indianapolis) Sport Case control N = 63, two groups;
-symptomatic, 30: 20 males, 10 females, A = 27 ± 7, H = 177 ± 1, W = 80 ± 16
- a-symptomatic, 33: 22 males, 11 females, A = 25 ± 7, H = 177 ± 1, W = 72 ± 12
Sport hrs/wk:
Symptomatic group: 4.2 ± 2.7
A-symptomatic group: 3.4 ± 1.6
-no significant difference in sport hours per week between symptomatic and a symptomatic group
  1. N = number of subjects, hrs = hours, wk = week
  2. A = age (yrs) ± Sd or [] = range, H = height (cm) ± Sd, W = weight (kg) ± Sd,
  3. hypoechoic region = fluid regions