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Table 1 A Comparison of Head injuries in Un-Helmeted and Helmeted Motorcycle Collision Victims

From: The impact of helmets on motorcycle head trauma at a tertiary hospital in Jamaica

Parameter Road Traffic Accident Victims P Value* OR, CI
  Total Un-Helmeted Helmeted   
Total number of head injured patients 143 94 49 - -
Intracranial Lesions 55 42 (44.7%) 13 (26.5%) 0.03 2.24, 1.05 - 4.75
Brain Injury Severity      
Severe TBI 58 44 (46.8%) 14 (28.6%) 0.028 2.31, 1.08 - 4.89
Moderate TBI 7 5 (5.3%) 2 (4.1%) 0.695 1.83, 0.34 - 10.04
Mild TBI 78 45 (47.9%) 33 (67.3%) 1.000 1.0, -
ICU Admission 10 8 (8.5%) 2 (4.1%) 0.49 2.19, 0.45-10.72
ICU Duration of Stay      
Mean +/- SD   8.9 +/- 5.7 5.5 +/- 6.4   -
Range   4 - 21 1 - 10   
Median   7.5 5.5   
IQR (Q1, Q3)   4.25, 11.5 1, 10   
Injury Severity Score      
Mean +/- SD   15.5 +/- 15.0 13.3 +/- 22.1 0.143 -
Range   1 - 75 4 - 75   
Median   9 9   
Mode   9 4   
Hospitalization      -
Mean +/- SD   11.1 +/- 16.3 12.9 +/- 14.9 0.517  
Range   0 - 86 0 - 60   
Median   5 7   
IQR (Q1, Q3)   2, 11 2, 16.5   
Mortality 12 (8.4%) 10 (10.6%) 2 (4.1%) 0.22 2.80, 0.59 - 13.31
GOS Score Category      
Score ≤ 3 15 (10.5%) 13 (13.8%) 2 (4.1%) 0.071 3.77, 0.82-17.44
Score ≤ 2 128 (89.5%) 81 (86.2%) 47 (95.9%) 1.0 -
  1. *Chi squared or fisher's exact test P values used as appropriate.
  2. Statistically significant difference
  3. Reference category