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Table 5 Participant descriptive statistics for each instrument

From: Selecting instruments for assessing psychological wellbeing in Afghan and Kurdish refugee groups

Variable Kessler-10 GPSE PWI (Subjective wellbeing)
   Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD n
Male (n = 100) 18.48 7.22 100 32.39 6.18 96 79.52 14.06 99
Female (n = 93) 21.84 7.99 93 28.17 6.26 90 74.73 15.68 91
Afghan (n = 90) 19.82 7.65 90 29.49 6.78 89 80.50 14.51 87
Kurdish (n = 103) 20.34 7.90 103 31.12 6.27 97 74.45 14.93 103
English version (n = 113) 18.75 6.66 113 32.00 5.46 110 75.56 15.55 112
Farsi version (n = 80) 22.00 8.80 80 27.93 7.26 76 79.62 13.95 78
Total score (n = 193) 20.10 7.77 193 30.34 6.55 186 77.22 15.01 190
   TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR EACH VARIABLE & INSTRUMENT
   Kessler-10   GPSE    PWI  
Variable U Z p U Z p U Z p
Gender 3333.5 -3.401 0.001 2486.0 -5.007 0.000 3730.0 -2.046 0.041
Refugee group 4501.5 -0.345 0.730 3706.5 -1.666 0.096 3348.5 -2.999 0.003
Language version 3601.0 -2.408 0.016 2799.0 -3.833 0.000 3716.0 -1.749 0.080
  1. Kessler-10 criteria: Low risk psychological distress 10-15.9; Moderate risk 16-21.9; High risk 22-29.9, Very high or severe risk 30-50.
  2. GPSE: Aggregate scoring range 10-40 with higher scores suggesting higher levels of self efficacy.
  3. PWI: Reporting subjective wellbeing as an aggregate percentage score, higher scores represent higher overall satisfaction.