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Table 2 Example outcome measures for anticipated MED-based interventions shown in Figure 1

From: The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol

MED-based intervention Example outcome measures
  Objective outcomes Self-reported outcomes
Clinical decision support systems - diagnosis • Adherence to clinical protocol • Diagnosis of disease or disease risk (primary prevention)• Treatment e.g. medication prescribed • Use of clinical protocol • Ease of clinical protocol use/comprehensibility
Clinical decision support systems - disease management • Successful disease management e.g. diabetes control measured by HbA1C, peak flow • Medication prescribed• Investigations arranged • Health outcomes e.g, cardiac events, mortality, diarrhoea, breast feeding • Use of clinical protocol • Ease of clinical protocol use/comprehensibility
Medical education •Changes in clinical knowledge/skills • Ease of use
Disease monitoring • Data collected• Disease control e.g. HbA1c, peak flow• Timeliness of data collection • Ease of data collection
Data collection tools
Medical records
• Data completeness• Timeliness of data collection • Ease of data collection• Ease of diagnosis
Test result notification • Time to result notification• Time to treatment initiation • Patient satisfaction with clinic service• Clinician preference for mode of notification
Appointment reminders • Percent of appointments missed• Percentage of appointments cancelled in advance • Patient intention to attend appointment
Treatment programmes • Treatment outcomes e.g. change in depression score • Patient satisfaction with treatment• Perceived level of support• Perceived changes in health status/disease condition
Chronic disease management
Medication adherence
• Disease management e.g. diabetes control measured by HbA1C or asthma management expiration peak flow rate• Percent of medication doses taken on time • Self-efficacy to manage condition/medication
Health behaviour change • Health outcome e.g. body mass index (weight loss) or blood cotinine levels (smoking cessation) • Self-efficacy to increase exercise/control dietary intake• Self reported behaviour
Acute disease management (first aid/emergency care) • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation chest compression rate/depth/accuracy/hand position • Perceived clarity of instructions
Untargeted mass health promotion campaigns • Coverage• Uptake of services or treatment • Knowledge