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Table 2 Example outcome measures for anticipated MED-based interventions shown in Figure 1

From: The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol

MED-based intervention

Example outcome measures


Objective outcomes

Self-reported outcomes

Clinical decision support systems - diagnosis

• Adherence to clinical protocol • Diagnosis of disease or disease risk (primary prevention)• Treatment e.g. medication prescribed

• Use of clinical protocol • Ease of clinical protocol use/comprehensibility

Clinical decision support systems - disease management

• Successful disease management e.g. diabetes control measured by HbA1C, peak flow • Medication prescribed• Investigations arranged • Health outcomes e.g, cardiac events, mortality, diarrhoea, breast feeding

• Use of clinical protocol • Ease of clinical protocol use/comprehensibility

Medical education

•Changes in clinical knowledge/skills

• Ease of use

Disease monitoring

• Data collected• Disease control e.g. HbA1c, peak flow• Timeliness of data collection

• Ease of data collection

Data collection tools

Medical records

• Data completeness• Timeliness of data collection

• Ease of data collection• Ease of diagnosis

Test result notification

• Time to result notification• Time to treatment initiation

• Patient satisfaction with clinic service• Clinician preference for mode of notification

Appointment reminders

• Percent of appointments missed• Percentage of appointments cancelled in advance

• Patient intention to attend appointment

Treatment programmes

• Treatment outcomes e.g. change in depression score

• Patient satisfaction with treatment• Perceived level of support• Perceived changes in health status/disease condition

Chronic disease management

Medication adherence

• Disease management e.g. diabetes control measured by HbA1C or asthma management expiration peak flow rate• Percent of medication doses taken on time

• Self-efficacy to manage condition/medication

Health behaviour change

• Health outcome e.g. body mass index (weight loss) or blood cotinine levels (smoking cessation)

• Self-efficacy to increase exercise/control dietary intake• Self reported behaviour

Acute disease management (first aid/emergency care)

• Cardiopulmonary resuscitation chest compression rate/depth/accuracy/hand position

• Perceived clarity of instructions

Untargeted mass health promotion campaigns

• Coverage• Uptake of services or treatment

• Knowledge