Up-regulation of Rn18 S upon BDNF-treatment. Gene expression analysis in muscle tissue of SOD1-G93A animals intramuscularly injected with pcDNA3.1-CMV control plasmid (dark grey bars) or pcDNA3.1-CMV-BDNF-TTC plasmid (light grey bars) at ten days (age 70 days) or fifty days (age 110 days) post-injection. A) BDNF expression is unchanged (P = 0.258) at age of 70 days but shows 2.4-fold increase (P = 0.007) in therapeutically treated animals at age of 110 days. B) Rn18 S expression is not altered at age of 70 days (P = 0.298) but is 1.8-fold higher (P = 0.009) at age of 110 days. C) Actb and D) Gapdh expression is unaltered in all conditions (P > 0.05). Error bars indicate standard error of mean. Symbol ** denotes statistical significance level P ≤ 0.01.