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Table 2 Characteristics and delivery interventions (%) in non-university hospitals (F-S) (included if ≥1, 000 deliveries/year) with different obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) rates in primiparous (n = 109, 596) and multiparous women (n = 146, 064) with singleton vaginal delivery between 1997 and 2007 in Finland (Chi Square test/Kruskall Wallis test).

From: Up to seven-fold inter-hospital differences in obstetric anal sphincter injury rates- A birth register-based study in Finland

CHARACTERISTICS/INTERVENTIONS Low: Hospitals with ≤0.5%
OASIS rate
Medium: Hospitals
with 0.6-1%
OASIS rate
High:
Hospitals
with 1.1-1.4%
OASIS rate
p value Pooled
PRIMIPAROUS,
n = 109, 596 (%)
15, 529 (14.2) 24, 315 (22.2) 69, 752 (63.6)   
Hospitals, n 3 (G, L, P) 4 (I, M, N, R) 7 (F, H, J, K, O, Q, S)   
OASIS, n = 1,137 61 (0.4) 185 (0.8) 891 (1.3) ≤0.001 1.0
Birth weight >4,000 g 13.0 11.6 12.8 ≤0.001 12.5
Mean (± SD) of active second stage of birth (min) 40 ± 36 28 ± 29 45 ± 43 ≤0.001 39 ± 39
Episiotomy 75.0 75.7 60.7 ≤0.001 66.1
Vacuum assistance 12.9 16.1 14.8 ≤0.001 14.8
Amniotomy 46.5 52.1 50.0 ≤0.001 50.0
Augmentation with oxytocin 66.7 72.6 66.3 ≤0.001 67.7
Epidural analgesia 57.4 61.1 55.8 ≤0.001 57.2
Paracervical block 15.6 18.1 11.8 ≤0.001 13.7
*Caesarean section 21.9 22.4 22.2 0.47 22.2
CHARACTERISTICS/INTERVENTIONS Low: Hospitals with <0.1%
OASIS rate
Medium: Hospitals
with 0.1-0.2%
OASIS rate
High:
Hospitals
with 0.3-0.4%
OASIS rate
p value Pooled
MULTIPAROUS,
n = 146, 064 (%)
12, 128 (8.3) 98, 793 (67.6) 35, 143 (24.1)   
Hospitals, n 2 (G, L) 9(F, H, I, K, M, N, O, P, R) 3 (J, Q, S)   
OASIS, n = 256 4 (0.03) 151 (0.15) 101 (0.29) ≤0.001 0.18
Birth weight >4,000 g 21.8 22.6 23.8 ≤0.001 22.8
Mean (± SD) of active second stage of birth (min) 13 ± 18 13 ± 19 12 ± 15 ≤0.001 13 ± 18
Episiotomy 21.1 17.4 16.5 ≤0.001 17.5
Vacuum assistance 1.9 2.1 2.0 0.17 2.1
Amniotomy 45.8 54.5 56.1 ≤0.001 54.1
Augmentation with oxytocin 28.4 39.4 37.0 ≤0.001 37.9
Epidural analgesia 11.5 16.7 16.6 ≤0.001 16.3
Paracervical block 24.8 22.5 16.5 ≤0.001 21.3
*Caesarean section 10.1 10.0 8.6 ≤0.001 9.7
  1. *Caesarean section rates of each hospital are also given during the same period of time