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Table 1 Analysis of 16 trials reporting on the efficacy of DBS treatment for OCD, TRD, or both.

From: Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder and treatment-resistant depression: systematic review

  Study Jadad score Double blind No. of patients (started/finished) Final observation period (months) Cerebral blood flow Clinical scales DBS location Adverse effects* Patients improved Patients recovered
OCD Nuttin 1999 [4] 3 Yes 6/4 21 fMRI, PET POMS AL/IC   3 (75%)  
  Gabriels 2003 [5] 0 No 3/3 33-39   BPRS, POMS, Y-BOCS AL/IC   2 (66%)  
  Nuttin 2003 [6] 4 Yes 6/4 21 fMRI, PET CGI, Y-BOCS AL/IC, DMNT   3 (50%)  
  Sturm 2003 [7] 0 No 4/4 30-34 fMRI, PET   Right NA   4 (100%)  
  Abelson 2005 [8] 3 No 4/4 10 PET GAF, HDRS AL/IC Mild dizziness 3 (75%) 1 (25%)
  Greenberg 2006 [9] 4 Yes 10/8 36   HDRS, Y-BOCS AL/IC, VC/C Seizure, hypomania, relapse with battery failure 2 (25%) 4 (50%)
  Jimenez 2007** [10] 0 Yes 1/1    GAF ITP   1 (100%) 1 (100%)
  Mallet 2008 [11] 4 Yes 18/168 3   GAF, CGI MADRAS, MDRS, MINI, Y-BOCS STN 15 major including a brain hemorrhage, 22 minor adverse events 10 (62%) 4 (25%)
  Nuttin 2008 [12] 4 Yes 6/6 21 PET CGI, Y-BOCS AL/IC   3 (75%)  
TRD Jimenez 2005 [13] 0 No 1/1 24   HDRS ITP    1 (100%)
  Mayberg 2005 [14] 3 Yes 6/6 6 PET CGI, HDRS, MADRS, PANAS CG    4 (66%)
  Schlapfer 2005 [15] 4 Yes 3/3   PET      3 (100%)
  Jimenez 2007** [10] 0 No 1/1    HDRS, GAS ITP    1 (100%)
  Lozano 2008 [16] 4 Yes 20/20 12 PET BAI, BDI, CGI, HDRS CG   12 (60%) 7 (35%)
  Malone 2009 [17] 4 No 15/15 15   CGI, GAF, HDRS, MADRS VC/CS    6 (40%)
  Wang 2009 [18] 0 Yes 21/21***    HDRS STN    
OCD and TRD Aouizerate 2009 [19] 0   1/1 15   HDRS, Y-BOCS LCa, NA   1 (100%)  
  1. AL/IC, anterior limbs of internal capsule; BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BPRS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; CG, cingulate gyrus; CGI, Clinical Global Impressions; DMNT, dorsa-medial nucleus of the thalamus; GAF, Global Assessment of Function; GAS, Global Assessment Scale; ITP, inferior thalamic peduncle; LCa, limbic caudate; HDRS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; MADRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MDRS, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale; MINI, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; NA, nucleus accumbens; PANAS, Positive and Negative Affects Scales; PET, positron emission tomography; PMOS, Profile of Mood States; STN, subthalamic nucleus; VC/CS, ventral capsule/ventral striatum; Y-BOCS, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale.
  2. Blank cells indicate that there were no data on that subject in the paper.
  3. *Other than minor surgical effects.
  4. **In this study, one patient with OCD and another with TRD underwent DBS.
  5. ***Patients on anti-Parkinson drugs were controls.