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Table 6 Time domain indices in the different groups based on repeated ECG recordings over time

From: Time and frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Groupa Mean heart rate [bpm]
Median (range)
Deviation from mean interval [%]
Median (range)
VVTI
Median (range)
1. Female control 60 (45-104)
N = 9
42.6% (10.6%-74.3%)
N = 8
10.8 (5.1-13.4)
N = 8
2. Female negative 50 (42-64)
N = 9
48.1% (30.7%-76.5%)
N = 9
6.4 (3.9-9.9)
N = 9
3. Female positive 56 (43-70)
N = 2
62.1% (40.9%-83.3%)
N = 2
7.4 (6.2-8.7)
N = 2
4. Male control 66 (57-106)
N = 22
26.3% (13.1%-44.9%)
N = 22
11.4 (7.6-19.4)
N = 22
5. Male negative 73 (49-114)
N = 51
27.2% (8.3%-53.1%)
N = 47
13.4 (5.4-28.0)
N = 47
6. Male positive 66 (58-94)
N = 16
29.0% (14.1%-57.6%)
N = 15
13.0 (7.0-22.1)
N = 15
P -value (Kruskal-Wallis test)
Significant differences between groups (Dunn's test)
< 0.0001
2 & 4 (*), 5 (***)
0.0005
2 & 4 (*), 5 (**)
< 0.0001
2 & 4 (*), 5 (***), 6 (**)
  1. a Negative: cattle inoculated with tissue/body fluids from BSE/scrapie-challenged or naturally infected BSE cases as well as reported BSE suspects that were negative for BSE by postmortem tests.
  2. Positive: challenged or naturally infected BSE suspects that were positive for BSE by postmortem tests. BSE-positive female cattle were included for completeness, even though the total number was too low for any statistical comparison.
  3. N = Number of examined cattle
  4. Dunn's post test P values are expressed as * (P < 0.05), ** (P < 0.01) and *** (P < 0.001).