Differential effect of acrolein on insect elicitor- and Z -3-hexenyl acetate- induced jasmonic acid accumulation. A. Effect of acrolein pre-treatment on insect elicitor (IE)-induced jasmonic acid accumulation in maize seedlings. Jasmonic acid was measured in the local (directly treated) and the distal (leaf upwards from the treatment site) section of the same leaf. B. Effect of acrolein pre-treatment on Z-3-hexenyl acetate (Z-3-HAC)- induced jasmonic acid. Jasmonic acid was measured 60 min after insect elicitor treatment and 30 min after Z-3-HAC exposure. Error bars represent standard deviation. An * indicates a significant difference between acrolein-treated and control plants (t-test, p ≤ 0.05).