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Table 2 Frequency of kdr alleles in Anopheles gambiae s

From: Kdr-based insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s populations in Cameroon: spread of the L1014F and L1014S mutations

An. gambiae s.s Geographic area Locality N Allelic frequencies (%) FIS p(HW)
     f (1014L)[95%CI] f (1014F)[95%CI] f (1014S)[95%CI]   
M-form Forest area Ngousso 57 98.2 [95.5-100] 1.7 [0-4.5] 0 - 0.009 0.991
   Nkolbikon 22 90.9 [79.2-100] 6.8 [0-18.2] 2.3 [0-7.5] - -
  Coastal area Ipono 22 100 0 0 - -
   Campo 37 100 0 0 - -
   Kribi 62 95.2 [91.2-98.4] 4.8 [1.5-8.8] 0 - 0.043 0.877
   Bonamikengué 64 100 0 0 - -
   Bonanloka 38 100 0 0 - -
   Bonanjo 61 81.9 [73.8-89.5] 18.0 [10.5-26.2] 0 + 0.342 0.027
   Bonassama 74 87.2 [80.4-93.2] 12.8 [6.8-19.6] 0 +0.462 0.011
   Loum 77 100 0 0 - -
   Tiko 47 94.7 [90-98.9] 5.3 [1.1-10] 0 - 0.045 0.911
   Idénau 18 91.7 [83.3-100] 8.3 [0-16.7] 0 - -
S-form Forest area Ngousso 6 16.7 [0-50] 75.0 [35.7-100] 8.3 [0-25] - -
   Nkolondom 64 35.9 [25.8-46.1] 60.2 [50-70.3] 3.9 [0.8-8.6] +0.452 0.005
   Dabadi 72 39.6 [31.9-47.9] 46.5 [38.2-54.2] 13.9 [8.3-19.4] - 0.001 0.583
   Italie 75 25.3 [19.3-32.0] 62.7 [55.33-70] 12.0 [7.3-17.3] - 0.103 0.172
   Nkolbikon 55 32.7 [24.1-41.2] 60.9 [51.7-70.2] 6.4 [2.5-11.2] + 0.019 0.538
  Coastal area Ipono 14 71.4 [54.2-87.5] 25.0 [11.5-38.2] 3.6 [0-11.5] - -
   Campo 39 60.2 [47.1-73.3] 29.5 [17.9-41.9] 10.3 [3.6-18.2] + 0.346 0.005
   Kribi 11 36.4 [13.6-60] 54.5 [33.3-75] 9.1 [0-22.2] - -
   Bonamikengué 4 100 0 0 - -
   Bonanloka 24 89.6 [78.6-98.1] 10.4 [1.9-21.4] 0 - -
   Bonanjo 2 25.0 [0-50] 75.0 [0-100] 0 - -
   Tiko 18 97.2 [90.6-100] 2.8 [0-9.4] 0 - -
  Highland area Mangoum 76 0.6 [0-1.9] 84.9 [79.6-90.1] 14.5 [9.2-19.7] +0.001 0.577
   Makoutchietoum 77 0.6 [0-1.9] 88.3 [83.8-92.9] 11.0 [6.5-15.6] -0.1350 0.250
   Magba 62 57.3 [47.6-66.9] 37.9 [29.8-46.8] 4.8 [1.6-8.9] +0.088 0.161
  Northern savannah area Tibati 50 91.0 [83-97] 9.0 [3-17] 0 +0.631 0.005
   Ngaoundéré 16 78.1 [56.2-93.7] 18.7 [3.1-37.5] 3.1 [0-9.4] - -
   Pitoa 4 100 0 0 - -
  1. f(): frequency of the allele (in %); [95%CI]: 95% confidence interval; N: number of mosquitoes; p(HW): probability of the exact test for goodness of fit to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; in bold: Significant value (p(HW)<0.05, single test level); Fis is calculated according to Weir and Cockerham, 1984. Positive Fis indicates a deficit of heterozygotes and negative Fis indicates an excess of heterozygotes; -: not determined because no polymorphism observed and/or N < 30.