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Table 1 Urinary bacterial adhesion to T24 cells expressed as Adhesion Index (AI) following consumption of increasing doses of cranberry powder of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with or without propolis vs. placebo. The results are representative of at least three independent trials

From: Propolis can potentialise the anti-adhesion activity of proanthocyanidins on uropathogenic Escherichia coli in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections

AI Median [Range]
PAC* (mg) - 36 60 60 60 72 90 120 144
Propolis (mg) - - - 170 192 - 255 340 -
4-6 h 21.5 [15-28] 10.5 [5-16] 4.7 [0-13] 3.0 [0-8] 3.5 [0-10] 5.9 [1-11] 2.1 [0-7] 1.3 [0-6] 2.5 [1-6]
12 h 22.5 [16-30] 14.4 [8-19] 12.6 [5-18] 13.7 [5-25] 7.5 [0-14] 5.9 [1-9] 2.9 [15-5] 1.8 [0-6] ND
24 h 22.3 [15-29] 16.0 [10-22] 21.5 [15-26] 17.1 [12-29] 18.5 [10-25] 14.5 [2-25] 17.4 [10-25] 3.5 [0-10] 9.9 [2-15]
Reference This study [17, 23] This study This study This study [17,23] This study This study [23]
  1. *Expressed as vanillin-H2SO4 equivalents
  2. Range of values are indicated into [square brackets]
  3. ND not determined