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Table 2 In vivo kinetics of killing of C.elegans infected by E. coli grown in urine samples after consumption of the different proanthocyanidins plus propolis regimens.

From: Propolis can potentialise the anti-adhesion activity of proanthocyanidins on uropathogenic Escherichia coli in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections

Strains PACs mg Propolis mg Collection time LT50 LT100 p
       T0 vs. others test 1 vs. test 2 test 1 vs. test 4
NECS978323 - - 0 4.2 ± 0.2 7.4 ± 0.6 NA   
test 1 60 - 4-6 h 6.5 ± 0.1 11.5 ± 0.5 < 0.001 NS  
  60 - 12 h 5.6 ± 0.2 9.5 ± 0.5 < 0.001 NS  
  60 - 24 h 4.2 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 0.7 NS NS  
test 2 60 170 4-6 h 6.0 ± 0.1 11.3 ± 0.7 < 0.001 NS  
  60 170 12 h 5.5 ± 0.2 9.3 ± 0.7 < 0.001 NS  
  60 170 24 h 5.0 ± 0.2 7.8 ± 0.8 NS NS  
test 3 60 192 4-6 h 6.1 ± 0.1 11.2 ± 0.8 < 0.001   
  60 192 12 h 5.5 ± 0.2 9.5 ± 0.5 < 0.001   
  60 192 24 h 5.3 ± 0.2 8.5 ± 0.5 0.02   
test 4 90 255 4-6 h 6.3 ± 0.3 11.3 ± 0.7 < 0.001   NS
  90 255 12 h 5.3 ± 0.3 9.5 ± 0.5 < 0.001   NS
  90 255 24 h 5.8 ± 0.2 9.0 ± 1.0 < 0.001   < 0.001
test 5 120 340 4-6 h 6.0 ± 0.1 11.8 ± 0.8 < 0.001   
  120 340 12 h 6.2 ± 0.2 11.8 ± 0.8 < 0.001   
  120 340 24 h 6.3 ± 0.3 11.5 ± 0.5 < 0.001   
test 6 - - 4-6 h 4.1 ± 0.2 7.2 ± 0.8 NS   
  - - 12 h 3.9 ± 0.1 7.0 ± 0.5 NS   
  - - 24 h 4.2 ± 0.3 7.3 ± 0.7 NS   
OP50 - - - 7.5 ± 0.5 13.3 ± 0.7 < 0.001   
  1. The results are representative of at least three independent assays. OP50 is an avirulent E. coli strain used as control of the vitality of worms. E. coli NECS978323 was the strain used in the study. It was used as control (without treatment)
  2. NS not significant