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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants, by 25(OH)D group

From: Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency with NT-pro BNP levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a cross-sectional analysis

   25(OH)D group, ng/mL   
  0-10 >10-≤20 >20-<30 ≥30  
Characteristic ( n = 40) ( n = 138) ( n = 50) ( n = 10) P- value
Demographics      
   Age (yr) 55.0 ± 11.2 57.8 ± 11.8 58.8 ± 10.2 62.4 ± 11.3 0.21
   Male, n (%) 26(65.0) 104(75.4) 38 (76.0) 8 (80.0) 0.57
   Caucasian, n (%) 23 (57.5) 103 (74.6) 41 (82.0) 10 (100.0) 0.012
BMI (kg/m2) 32.1 ± 5.6 30.9 ± 6.9 29.5 ± 5.6 26.5 ± 4.6 0.066
Socio-economic status      
   Low social support, n (%) 11 (27.5) 20 (14.9) 3 (6.0) 0 (0) 0.023
   No health insurance, n (%) 14 (35.0) 28 (20.9) 5 (10.4) 1 (10.0) 0.036
Lifestyle      
   Smoked within 1 month, n (%) 24 (60.0) 49 (35.5) 15 (30.0) 0(0) <0.001
Leisure time activity, n (%)      0.047
   Mainly sedentary 20 (50.0) 56 (40.9) 19 (38.0) 1 (10.0)  
   Mild exercise 13 (32.5) 49 (35.8) 11 (22.0) 3 (30.0)  
   Moderate exercise 6 (15.0) 27 (19.7) 17 (34.0) 4 (40.0)  
   Strenuous exercise 1 (2.5) 5 (3.6) 3 (6.0) 2 (20.0)  
Geographical region, n (%)      0.79
   Midwest 18 (56.3) 53 (45.3) 15 (34.1) 5 (62.5)  
   Northeast 3 (9.4) 15 (12.8) 5 (11.4) 0 (0)  
   Southeast 5 (15.6) 23 (19.7) 9 (20.5) 1 (12.5)  
   Southwest 4 (12.5) 22 (18.8) 12 (27.3) 2 (25.0)  
   West 2 (6.3) 4 (3.4) 3 (6.8) 0 (0)  
Season, n (%)      0.064
   Apr-Jun 1 (2.5) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
   Jul-Sep 10 (25.0) 56 (40.6) 24 (48.0) 7 (70.0)  
   Oct-Dec 29 (72.5) 81 (58.7) 26 (52.0) 3 (30.0)  
Comorbidities, n (%)      
   Diabetes 13 (32.5) 41 (29.7) 8 (16.0) 2 (20.0) 0.21
   Hypertension 26 (65.0) 89 (64.5) 33 (66.0) 6 (60.0) 0.99
   Prior MI 2 (5.0) 36 (26.1) 9 (18.0) 2 (20.0) 0.019
   CKD 5 (12.5) 4 (2.9) 2 (4.0) 1 (10.0) 0.06
   Chronic heart failure 3 (7.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (2.0) 1 (10.0) 0.38
LVH on admission ECG, n (%) 7 (17.9) 9 (6.7) 4 (8.2) 0 (0) 0.18
Killip class on arrival, n (%)      0.35
   I 36 (94.7) 128 (94.8) 43 (86.0) 9 (90.0)  
   II 2 (5.3) 4 (3.0) 5 (10.0) 1 (10.0)  
   III 0 (0) 2 (1.5) 2 (4.0) 0 (0)  
   IV 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Rose dyspnea score 1.0 ± 0.9 0.9 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 0.8 0.6 ± 1.0 0.43
Final MI diagnosis, n (%)      0.36
   STEMI 15 (37.5) 64 (46.4) 23 (46.0) 2 (20.0)  
   Non-STEMI 25 (62.5) 74 (53.6) 27 (54.0) 8 (80.0)  
LV systolic function, n (%)      0.54
   Normal 24 (61.5) 88 (63.8) 36 (72.0) 6 (60.0)  
   Mild 8 (20.5) 24 (17.4) 10 (20.0) 1 (10.0)  
   Moderate 4 (10.3) 16(11.6) 4 (8.0) 1 (10.0)  
   Severe 3 (7.7) 10 (7.2) 0 (0) 2 (20.0)  
Laboratory values      
   Troponin I (ng/ml) 1.4 ±1.9 1.7 ± 1.8 1.6 ± 1.7 0.7 ± 1.2 0.3
   Total Cholesterol (mg/dl) 150.6 ± 47 157.3 ± 29 150.5 ± 29 189.7 ± 47 0.011
   HDL(mg/dl) 37.9 ± 10.6 38.4 ± 8.7 40.6 ± 10.7 43.1 ± 25.2 0.36
   LDL (mg/dl) 92.2 ± 36.7 97.4 ± 25 90.4 ± 25.7 119.2 ± 42.8 0.032
   Triglycerides(mg/dl) 153.2 ± 74 185.6 ± 145 143.6 ± 79 195.4 ± 169 0.17
   Calcium (mg/dl) 8.9 ± 0.6 8.8 ± 0.6 9.0 ± 0.4 9.3 ± 0.6 0.038
   Intact PTH (pg/ml) 59.8 ± 67.7 40.1 ± 28.1 32.8 ± 15.3 32.0 ± 26.5 0.004
   Phosphate (mg/dl) 3.6 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.9 0.69
   hs-CRP (mg/l) 5.2 ± 5.6 3.8 ± 5.3 3.8 ± 4.5 0.9 ± 0.8 0.12
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 84.7 ± 28.1 88.3 ± 27.3 80.3 ± 18.9 80.1 ± 18.8 0.25
Medications      
   ACEI/ARB, n (%) 11 (27.5) 39 (28.3) 18 (36.0) 1 (10.0) 0.43
   Diuretic, n (%) 9 (22.5) 31 (22.5) 15 (30.0) 10(10.0) 0.58
   Omega-3 supplements, n (%) 3 (7.5) 31 (22.5) 18 (36.0) 5 (50.0) 0.002