Gene Dose Ratio of the cadherin gene in individual thoraxes of O. nubilalis. DNA (0.2 ng/μl) was obtained from individual male or female thoraxes of insects from three O. nubilalis colonies. Each DNA sample was analyzed with primers that target exon 26 (e26 primers, empty bars) and exon 28 (e28 primers, filled bars) of the cadherin gene. GDR values are relative to the number of RpS3 gene copies. Error bars represent the SE from two or three replicates.