Effects of three lacidipine (a), amlodipine and (S-)-amlodipine (b) and NAC on ox-LDL induced HUVSMCs proliferation. Cells were pretreated for 1 h with or without CCBs or with NAC (5 mM), and then treated with or without ox-LDL (50 μg/ml). Data are mean ± SD of five to eight independent experiments determined in duplicate (three independent experiments for (S-)-amlodipine), and expressed as fold increase of absorbance in 440 nm compared with unstimulated cells. * P < 0.05 vs. corresponding no ox-LDL control. # P < 0.05 vs. ox-LDL. NS indicates no significance vs. corresponding solvent group (a) or vs. the control group (b).