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Figure 2 | BMC Research Notes

Figure 2

From: A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

Figure 2

The effects of oral administration of the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan on cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows. Serum was sampled from the Holstein cows used in Figure 1A and B, and then the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; A), interleukin (IL)-6 (B), and IL-8 (C) in the serum were quantified by ELISA. The bar graphs indicate the quantification value of each serum, and the line graphs show the mean.

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