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Table 1 The characteristics of the CoSmoS-study sample (n = 302)

From: The association between active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social network on the development of lung cancer in smokers: a case-control study

Variable Coding Missing values Lung cancer patients Control patients
   n n % n %
Gender male 0 104 65.8 89 61.8
  female   54 34.2 55 38.2
Age 35-44 2 3 1.9 23 16.1
  45-54   44 28.0 31 21.7
  55-64   61 38.9 51 35.7
  65-76   49 31.2 38 26.6
Education no vocational/university education 3 34 21.8 15 10.5
  lower vocational education   113 72.4 102 71.3
  higher vocational/university education   9 5.8 26 18.2
Marital status married 3 48 30.6 46 32.4
  not married   109 69.4 96 67.6
Residence city 2 36 22.8 25 17.6
  country   122 77.2 117 82.4
Religion religious 0 36 22.8 37 25.7
  not religious   122 77.2 107 74.3
Physical activity physically active at least one hour per week 1 44 27.8 72 50.3
  not physically active during the week   114 72.2 71 49.7
Pack years ≤ 15 pack years 10 91 59.5 109 78.4
  > 15 pack years   62 40.5 30 21.6
Friends many 0 72 46.6 72 50.0
  none/few   86 54.4 72 50.0
Relatives many 0 72 45.6 79 54.9
  none/few   86 54.4 65 45.1
Participation in a sports club yes 0 19 12.0 35 24.3
  no   139 88.0 109 75.7
  1. The results of the stem-and-leaf plots revealed high outliers for both number of friends (mean = 6.2; maximum outlier = 150) and number of relatives (mean = 5.4; maximum outlier = 50). Two separate regression analyses were conducted, one with and one without the detected outliers (median split at 3) [30]. No significant differences were found without the outliers present. The outliers were excluded for the present regression analysis.