Skip to main content

Table 3 Patient Safety Education Topics by Category and Topic

From: Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey

   Public (N=31) Private (N=16) Total (N=47)
   n (%) n (%) n (%)
Hospital safety management    
  Institutional near-miss/ adverse event reporting 22 (71.0) 11 (68.8) 33 (70.2)
  Committee for patient safety 21 (67.7) 10 (62.5) 31 (66.0)
  Department of patient safety 18 (58.0) 10 (62.5) 28 (59.6)
  Principles of patient safety 18 (58.1) 8 (50.0) 26 (55.3)
  Patient safety officer 20 (64.5) 6 (37.5) 26 (55.3)
  Staff orientation for patient safety 16 (51.6) 6 (37.5) 22 (46.8)
  Investigation committee for adverse events 13 (41.9) 5 (31.3) 18 (38.3)
  Reporting to Japanese Council for Quality Health Care [10] 7 (22.6) 2 (12.5) 9 (19.1)
  Patient relations (patient feedback) 6 (19.4) 3 (18.8) 9 (19.1)
Medical error theory    
  Human factors 25 (80.6) 13 (81.3) 38 (80.9)
  Theories and models (Swiss Cheese Model, Heinrich’s Law) 25 (80.6) 11 (68.8) 36 (76.6)
  System factors 21 (67.7) 12 (75.0) 33 (70.2)
  Work environment 19 (61.3) 7 (43.8) 26 (55.3)
Practical safety    
  Reporting near-miss/ adverse events 22 (71.0) 12 (75.0) 34 (72.3)
  Verifying patient identity † 24 (77.4) 8 (50.0) 32 (68.1)
  Double-checking 20 (64.5) 7 (43.8) 27 (57.5)
  Communication of near-miss/ adverse events internally 18 (58.1) 7 (43.8) 25 (53.2)
  Identifying risks and developing prevention strategies † 18 (58.1) 5 (31.3) 23 (48.9)
  Standardizing procedures † 19 (61.3) 3 (18.8) 22 (46.8)
  Fail-safe systems 16 (51.6) 5 (31.3) 21 (44.7)
  Object pointing with verbal confirmation † 18 (58.1) 2 (12.5) 20 (42.6)
  Reading back verbal orders † 17 (54.8) 1 (6.3) 18 (38.3)
  Modifying drug names † 14 (45.2) 2 (12.5) 16 (34.2)
  Patient cooperation † 12 (38.7) 2 (12.5) 14 (29.8)
  Concept of fool-proof 11 (35.5) 3 (18.8) 14 (29.8)
  Appropriate documentation of adverse events 11 (35.5) 2 (12.5) 13 (27.7)
  Coherence of documentation of adverse events 10 (32.3) 2 (12.5) 12 (25.5)
  Confirming orders † 9 (29.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (19.2)
Error analysis    
  Root Cause Analysis 9 (29.0) 2 (12.5) 11 (23.4)
  Software, Hardware, Environment, and Liveware (SHEL) Model † 7 (25.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (14.9)
  4M-4E 6 (19.4) 0 (0.0) 6 (12.8)
  Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) 1 (3.2) 1 (6.3) 2 (4.3)
Management of adverse events    
  Patient communication 14 (45.2) 9 (56.3) 23 (48.9)
  Reporting unnatural deaths to the police 13 (41.9) 8 (50.0) 21 (44.7)
  Formulating prevention strategies 15 (48.4) 6 (37.5) 21 (44.7)
  Emergency protocols 14 (45.2) 6 (37.5) 20 (42.6)
  Apology 13 (41.9) 7 (43.8) 20 (42.6)
  Documentation 12 (38.7) 6 (37.5) 18 (38.3)
  Hospital investigation 11 (35.5) 5 (31.3) 16 (34.1)
  Definition of terms 12 (38.7) 4 (25.0) 16 (34.1)
  Transparency/public disclosure 9 (29.0) 5 (31.3) 14 (29.8)
  Preservation of evidence 9 (29.0) 4 (25.0) 13 (27.7)
  Recommending autopsy 8 (25.8) 4 (25.0) 12 (25.5)
  Analyzing medical errors 7 (22.6) 5 (31.3) 12 (25.5)
  Management of medical personnel involved in the adverse event 9 (29.0) 2 (12.5) 11 (23.4)
  Sharing adverse events with other institutions for learning 6 (19.4) 4 (25.0) 10 (21.3)
Autopsy    
  Clinical autopsy 18 (58.1) 12 (75.0) 30 (63.8)
  Judicial autopsy 18 (58.1) 10 (62.5) 28 (59.6)
  Administrative autopsy 11 (35.5) 8 (50.0) 19 (40.4)
  Model Project for healthcare-associated patient deaths [15] 8 (25.8) 3 (18.8) 11 (23.4)
Legal and societal responsibilities    
  Civil liabilities 26 (83.9) 12 (75.0) 38 (80.9)
  Criminal prosecution 25 (80.6) 12 (75.0) 37 (78.7)
  Societal responsibilities 20 (64.5) 11 (68.8) 31 (66.0)
  Administrative penalties on the individual 19 (61.3) 10 (62.5) 29 (61.7)
  Administrative penalties on the institution/system 11 (35.5) 7 (43.8) 18 (28.3)
  1. Questionnaire topics were selected based on the current WHO guidelines, the Japanese model core curriculum guidelines for patient safety education, and our previous survey regarding the management of adverse events”.
  2. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used; blank responses were excluded.
  3. P < 0.05 comparing public and private medical schools.