Responses of C. albicans to repeated hyperosmotic stress. C. albicans cells were exposed to two identical hyperosmotic shocks (A: 1 M NaCl; B: 0.5 M NaCl). After adaptation to the first shock (A: 60 min; B: 30 min), the cells were shifted to medium lacking NaCl for 10 min. Subsequently, the cells were subjected to an identical second shock (A: 1 M NaCl, 60 min; B: 0.5 M NaCl, 30 min). Hog1 phosphorylation was measured at various time points over a 1 or 2 h time course in duplicate (A) or triplicate (B). Experimental and simulated Hog1-phosphorylation levels are normalized against the first Hog1 phosphorylation peak. (C) Relative total and intracellular glycerol concentrations (0.5 M NaCl) were measured at various time points over a 2 h time course (2 to 6 replicates were measured up to 60 min, and in duplicate after 60 min). Both experimental and simulation results are normalized to the total glycerol concentration at 60 min.