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Table 2 Patient characteristics and results (n = 50). A Summary of clinical and histopathological data. B Complications (grade according to the Clavien classification of surgical complications [[15]]). C Variables used on univarate analysis. D Prognostic factors in multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards regression model).

From: Tumor thrombus of inferior vena cava in patients with renal cell carcinoma – clinical and oncological outcome of 50 patients after surgery

A Summary of clinical and histopathological data
Characteristics Entire Group (n = 50) Pat. without Metastases (n = 29/58%) Pat. with Metastases (n = 21/42%) p-value for difference
Sex     
  Female 14 (28%) 12 (41%) 2 (9.5%) p = 0.0094
  Male 36 (72%) 17 (59%) 19 (90%)
Laterality     
  Left 12 (24%) 4 (14%) 8 (38%) p = 0.047
  Right 38 (76%) 25 (87%) 13 (62%)
Symptomatic 35 (70%) 18 (62%) 17 (81%)  
  Gross hematuria 14 (28%) 9 (31%) 5 (24%)  
  Flank or abdominal pain 11 (22%) 5 (17%) 6 (29%)  
  Edema lower limbs 3 (6%) 1 (3,5%) 2 (9.5%)  
  Pulmonary embolism 1 (2%) 0 (0%) 1 (4.7%) p = 0.84
  Systemic symptoms (lost of weight, night sweat, anemia, etc.) 9 (18%) 4 (14%) 5 (24%)  
Tumor Grade     
  G1 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
  G2 32 (64%) 22 (76%) 10 (48%) p = 0.04
  G3 18 (36%) 7 (24%) 11 (52%)  
  G4 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Histological Type     
  Clear cell 39 (78%) 22 (76%) 17 (59%)  
  Papillary 7 (14%) 4 (14%) 3 (14%) p = 0.95
  Sarcomatoid 2 (4%) 1 (3,5%) 1 (4,7%)  
  Others 2 (4%) 2 (7%) 0 (0%)  
T stage     
  T3b 39 (78%) 21 (72%) 18 (86%) p = 0.12
  T3c 10 (20%) 8 (28%) 2 (9.5%)
  T4 1 (2%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
N stage    
  N0 38 (76%) 23 (79%) 15 (71%)  
  N1 4 (8%) 4 (14%) 0 (0%) p = 0.018
  N2 8 (16%) 2 (7%) 6 (29%)  
Level of Tumor Thrombus     
  Level I 5 (10%) 3 (10%) 2 (9.5%)  
  Level II 16 (32%) 11 (38%) 5 (24%) p = 0.093
  Level III 19 (38%) 7 (24% 12 (57%)  
  Level IV 10 (20%) 8 (28%) 2 (9.5%)  
Infiltration of IVC     
  yes 14 (28%) 10 (35%) 4 (19%) p = 0.22
  no 36 (72%) 19 (65%) 17 (81%)
Infiltration of perinephritic tissue     
  yes 29 (58%) 12 (41%) 17 (81%) p = 0.013
  no 21 (42%) 17 (59%) 4 (19%)  
B Complications (grade according to the Clavien classification of surgical complications [15])
Complications Grade n % Management
Acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage IV 3 6% Relaparotomy
Pericardial Effusion II 1 2% Conservatively
Postop. Hematoma/wound infection II 2 4% Conservatively
Ileus II 1 2% Conservatively
Total   7 14%  
C Variables used on univarate analysis
Prognostic factor p-value (univariate analysis)
pT p = 0.99
pN p = 0.00007
M p = 0.026
R p = 0.19
Histology p = 0.11
Grading p = 0.042
Infiltration perirenal tissue p = 0.035
Infiltration wall vena cava p = 0.012
Age p = 0.28
Size of tumor p = 0.019
Level of tumor thrombus (Mayo) p = 0.31
Extracorporal circulation p = 0.4
Hemoglobin p = 0.3
Thrombocytes p = 0.18
Ca p = 0.9
LDH p = 0.48
CRP p = 0.014
Alcalic phosphatase p = 0.076
Age p = 0.28
Adjuvant Treatment p = 0.15
D Prognostic factors in multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards regression model)
Prognostic factor p-value (multivariate analysis)
Grading p = 0.021
Distant Metastasis p = 0.00091
Lymph node invasion p = 0.000003