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Table 1 Sample description

From: Vulnerability to stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetes

  Total sample Patients by glycemic control level  
  N = 273 N = 107 N = 166  
   HbA1c < 8 HbA1c ≥ 8 P
Age (years) 57.68 ± 5.81 59.15 ± 4.69 56.74 ± 6.26 0.001
Gender (male) 139 (50.9) 54 (50.5) 85 (51.2) 1.000
Education level (years) 7 ± 4.20 7.23 ± 4.29 6.85 ± 4.14 0.469
BMI (kg/m2) 30.08 ± 4.42 30.02 ± 4.37 30.12 ± 4.50 0.858
Diabetes duration 13.95 ± 7.08 13.44 ± 7.91 14.27 ± 6.49 0.346
≥ 1 chronic complications 132 (48.4) 46 (43.0) 86 (51.8) 0.173
Insulin users 159 (58.2) 46 (43.0) 113 (68.1) <0.001
Antidepressant users 31 (11.4) 12 (11.2) 19 (11.4) 1.000
HbA1c 8.68 ± 1.71    
HADS depression 4.45 ± 3.59 3.93 ± 3.11 4.7 ± 3.84 0.047
HADS anxiety 7.24 ± 3.84 7.31 ± 3.94 7.19 ± 3.78 0.803
23QVS 42.70 ± 10.59 42.61 ± 9.20 42.76 ± 11.43 0.910
  1. Data are means ± SD or n (%). P values based on Student’s test or X² test comparing between those with HbA1c < 8 or ≥8.
  2. Legend: HADS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 23QVS: The 23 Questions to assess Vulnerability to Stress, BMI: Body Mass Index; HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c.