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Table 1 Staging of SI-NENs according to histological and PCR-based analyses

From: Comparison of PCR-based detection of chromogranin A mRNA with traditional histological lymph node staging of small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasia

  H&E Node positive PCR Node positive Percent upstaged by PCR
No Distant Metastases 6 / 9 8 / 9 22%*
Distant Metastases 11 / 12 12 / 12 8%
Total 17 / 21 20 / 21 14%
  1. *Upstaging by TNM criteria.
  2. The 21 SI-NENs included 3 patients with localized disease, 6 with nodal metastasis according to H&E assessment, and 12 with distant metastases (one was lymph node negative). PCR upstaged 2 of the 3 node negative patients to node positive, and the patient with node negative but metastatic disease was also node positive on PCR. Thus 3 of 21 (14%) patients were upstaged to node positive disease, with 2 patients upstaged in TNM staging.