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Table 5 Regressions of respondent characteristic variables including states assessing discriminant validity on quality of life domains

From: Development, reliability and validity of the Chichewa WHOQOL-BREF in adults in lilongwe, Malawi

a) Univariate Regressions Physical domain (0–100 scale) Psychological domain (0–100 scale) Social domain (0–100 scale) Environmental domain (0–100) Overall domain (q1; 1–5 scale) Health domain (q2; 1–5 scale)
(separate regr. for each variable)    95%CI    95%CI    95%CI    95%CI    95%CI    95%CI
Independent variable Coef. p > |t| lower upper Coef. p > |t| lower upper Coef. p > |t| lower upper Coef. p > |t| lower upper Coef. p > |t| lower upper Coef. p > |t| lower upper
Category: Reference = Sick(KCH)                         
Healthy (KCH) 1.2 0.763 −6.7 −9.1 −6.3 0.038 −12.4 −0.3 2.1 0.568 −9.4 5.2 −4.9 0.157 −11.7 1.9 −0.33 0.105 −0.73 0.07 0.47 0.018 0.08 0.86
Healthy (village) 9.0 0.032 0.8 17.2 1.2 0.701 −5.0 −7.4 3.1 0.425 −4.5 10.6 −3.2 0.374 −10.3 3.9 −0.22 0.302 −0.63 0.20 0.29 0.160 −0.12 0.69
Gender: Reference = male                         
female −2.7 0.237 −7.2 1.8 −1.9 0.270 −5.3 1.5 2.5 0.231 −1.6 6.6 0.7 0.720 −3.2 4.6 0.03 0.781 −0.20 0.26 0.11 0.328 −0.11 0.33
Education: Reference = None                         
Primary 3.4 0.467 −5.9 12.8 0.8 0.831 −6.4 8.0 1.8 0.694 −7.2 10.9 −1.0 0.817 −9.3 7.3 0.19 0.450 −0.30 0.67 0.33 0.179 −0.15 0.82
Secondary 12.6 0.007 3.5 21.7 7.2 0.440 0.2 14.2 1.8 0.681 −7.0 10.7 3.8 0.357 −4.3 11.9 0.34 0.159 −0.13 0.82 0.42 0.081 −0.05 0.90
Tertiary 21.6* 2E-05* 11.7* 31.6* 13.4* 6E-04* 5.8* 21.1* 6.6 0.177 −3.0 16.3 9.9 0.029 1.0 18.7 0.82 0.002 0.30 1.34 0.59 0.027 0.07 1.10
Marital Status: Reference = Married                         
Single 6.8 0.010 1.6 12.0 7.3* 4E-04* 3.3* 11.3* −0.4 0.885 −5.4 4.6 6.9 0.003 2.3 11.6 0.27 0.057 −0.01 0.54 0.12 0.399 −0.15 0.38
Living as Married 20.1 0.003 6.8 33.4 15.2 0.004 5.0 25.5 11.6 0.075 −1.2 24.3 15.9 0.008 4.1 27.6 0.30 0.399 −0.40 1.00 0.73 0.036 0.05 1.42
Separated −16.0 0.432 −16.0 6.8 −4.7 0.293 −13.5 4.1 −6.7 0.230 −17.7 4.3 0.4 0.943 −9.7 10.5 −0.30 0.325 −0.90 0.30 −0.48 0.107 −1.07 0.10
Divorced −1.0 0.858 −11.5 9.6 1.3 0.750 −6.8 9.5 2.4 0.648 −7.8 12.5 3.3 0.488 −6.0 12.6 0.12 0.678 −0.44 0.67 0.07 0.802 −0.47 0.61
Widowed −15.0* 1E-04* −22.6* −7.4* −3.8 0.206 −9.6 2.1 −2.2 0.553 −9.5 5.1 −1.2 0.725 −7.9 5.5 −0.06 0.783 −0.46 0.34 −0.28 0.157 −0.67 0.11
Ill: Reference category = not ill −4.9 0.103 −10.9 1.0 2.7 0.238 −1.8 7.2 −0.4 0.893 −5.8 5.1 4.1 0.116 −1.0 9.2 0.28 0.071 −0.02 0.58 −0.38 0.010 −0.68 −0.09
Age (years) −0.44* 4E-08* −0.59* −0.29* −0.17 0.007 −0.29 −0.46 −0.02 0.745 −0.17 0.12 −0.129 0.064 −0.266 0.008 −0.003 0.460 −0.011 0.005 −0.017* 2E-05* −0.025* −0.009*
Age 2 −0.0053 5E-09 −0.0070 −0.0036 −0.0017 0.015 −0.0031 −0.0033 −8E-05 0.927 −0.002 0.002 −0.001 0.092 −0.003 0.0002 −1E-05 0.803 0.000 −8E-05 −0.0002* 3E-05* −0.0003* −0.0001*
q1 (overall QoL, per 1 on 1–5 scale) 6.4* 6E-09* 4.3* 8.5* 8.7* 0* 7.3* 10.1* 6.8* 0* 4.9* 8.7* 11.1* 0* 9.6* 12.6*      0.41* 0* 0.31* 0.51*
q2 (overall health, per 1 on 1–5 scale) 7.2* 1E-10* 5.0* 9.3* 4.2* 1E-06* 2.6* 5.9* 4.1* 1E-04* 2.0* 6.1* 4.4* 7E-06* 2.5* 6.3* 0.43* 0* 0.32* 0.53*     
q26 (Depression, per 1 on 1–5 scale) 8.0* 0* 5.8* 10.3* 10.5* 0* 9.1* 11.9* 8.7* 0 6.7* 10.7* 10.0* 0* 8.3* 11.8* 0.47* 0* 0.37* 0.58* 0.27* 6E-06* 0.16* 0.39*
Disability weight of illness (0–1 scale) −23.3 0.005 −39.4 −7.1 3.7 0.536 −8.1 15.6 4.0 0.564 −9.7 17.7 8.7 0.18 −4.0 21.5 0.4 0.304 −0.4 1.2 −0.8 0.042 −1.5 0.0
b) Multivariate Restricted models a                         
Category: Reference = Sick(KCH)                         
Healthy (KCH)      −6.0 0.043 −11.7 0.2                 
Healthy (village)      2.0 0.512 −3.9 7.9 no variables significantly associated with social relationships domain             
Gender: Reference = male                     
female                     
Education: Reference = None                     
Primary 0.2 0.966 −9.0 9.4 0.8 0.819 −6.3 7.9      0.33 0.182 −0.16 0.82     
Secondary 5.0 0.297 −4.4 14.4 4.9 0.171 −2.1 12.0      0.53 0.038 0.03 1.04     
Tertiary 14.6 0.005 4.4 24.8 11.2 0.005 3.4 18.9      1.03* 2E-04* 0.48* 1.57*     
Marital Status: Reference = Married                     
Single 0.9 0.746 −4.5 6.3 4.8 0.022 0.7 8.9 6.9 0.003 2.3 11.6         
Living as Married 17.0 0.010 4.0 29.9 14.3 0.006 4.1 24.4 15.9 0.008 4.1 27.6         
Separated −5.6 0.313 −16.5 5.3 −5.5 0.209 −14.0 3.1      0.4 0.943 −9.7 10.5         
Divorced −2.5 0.629 −12.7 7.7 −0.7 0.855 −8.7 7.2      3.3 0.488 −6.0 12.6         
Widowed −8.0 0.053 −16.1 0.1 −2.5 0.399 −8.3 3.3      −1.2 0.725 −7.9 5.5         
Ill: Reference category = not ill                         
Age (years)                  −0.068 0.002 −0.111 −0.025 −0.017* 2E-05* −0.025* −0.009*
Age 2 −0.0027 0.012 −0.0049 −0.0006              0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001     
R 2    0.196     0.150     0.018     0.049     0.088     0.057  
c) Variables added to multivariate restricted models b                         
q1 (overall QoL, per 1 on 1–5 scale) 3.6* 0.001* 1.4* 5.8* 7.7* 0* 6.2* 9.2* 6.2* 1E-08* 4.1* 8.3* 11.1* 0 9.5* 12.7*      0.4* 0* 0.3* 0.5*
q2 (overall health, per 1 on 1–5 scale) 4.0* 5E-04* 1.8* 6.2* 0.3 0.660 −1.2 1.9 1.4 0.190 −0.7 3.5 −0.7 0.409 −2.3 0.9 0.43* 0* 0.33* 0.53*     
q26 (Depression, per 1 on 1–5 scale) 6.1* 9E-08* 3.9* 8.3* 9.6* 0* 8.2* 11.1* as univariate above 9.8* 0* 7.9* 11.5* 0.45* 0* 0.34* 0.56* 0.24* 5E-05* 0.12* 0.35*
Disability weight of illness (0–1 scale) −17.5 0.026 −33.0 −2.1 4.4 0.479 −7.8 16.6 as univariate above 9.4 0.142 −3.2 22.1 0.26 0.513 −0.51 1.02 −0.56 0.134 −1.30 0.17
  1. p  <  0.05  p < 0.01  * p < 0.001 . E=exponent (base 10) e.g. 2E-06 = 2 x 10-6.
  2. a Restricted model after starting with all socio-demographic variables and removing those p > 0.1 significant.
  3. b q1 and q2 added together; other coefficients not shown (but generally not qualitatively different from section b above after section c variables added).