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Table 3 Comparison of gender and rural–urban gaps in illiteracy for the Moroccan population participating in the National Surveys on Population and Health 1992, 2004 and 2011[2, 3]

From: Evolution of rural–urban health gaps in Morocco: 1992–2011

Illiteracy 10 years + Male Female Both sexes Ratio F/M
Year 1992     
 Urban 23.3 42.2 32.7 1.8
 Rural 58.3 82.5 70.5 1.4
 National 41.9 63.9 53.0 1.5
 Ratio R/U 2.5 1.9 2.2  
Year 2004     
 Urban 18.8 39.5 29.4 2.1
 Rural 46.0 74.5 60.5 1.6
 National 30.8 54.7 43.0 1.8
 Ratio R/U 2.4 1.9 2.1  
Year 2011     
 Urban 15.5 34.7 25.4 2.2
 Rural 40.0 66.2 53.6 1.7
 National 26.0 48.4 37.6 1.8
 Ratio R/U 2.6 1.9 2.1