Gremlin expression among the three study groups. (a) Gremlin mRNA expression in HCV cases. PCR products are observed in lanes 2, 3, 4 and 5. PCR products are not observed in lane 1. A 25 bp size marker was used in lane 6. Note: additional bands. (b) cirrhosis specimens. Note: all cases show a positive band at 198 bp. Lane 6 is a 25 bp marker (c) In HCC specimens, all cases show a positive band at 198 bp. Lane 6 is a 25 bp marker (Capillary electrophoresis using e-gene, HAD-GT12). (d) Level of gremlin positivity among study groups. (e) Significant correlation between the stage and gremlin expression.