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Table 1 Herpes simplex virus type-2 and HIV-1 prevalence by socio-demographic, high risk behavior, biological and medical factors among women in Moshi district, northern Tanzania

From: Deciphering the epidemic synergy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa

Variables HSV-2 (N = 1418) HIV-1 (N = 1418)
  Negative
N (%)
Positive
N (%)
P-value Negative
N (%)
Positive
N (%)
P-value
Age    <0.01    0.04
20-24 354 (44) 99 (16)   419 (33) 34 (22)  
25-29 205 (25) 140 (23)   303 (24) 42 (27)  
30-34 119 (15) 140 (23)   228 (18) 31 (20)  
35-39 78 (10) 120 (20)   168 (13) 30 (20)  
≥ 40 52 (6) 109 (18)   144 (12) 17 (11)  
Ethnicity    0.18    0.56
Chaga 438 (54) 301 (49)   665 (53) 74 (48)  
Pare 98 (12) 77 (13)   154 (12) 21 (14)  
Other 272 (34) 231 (38)   44 4(35) 59 (38)  
Religion    0.05    0.54
Muslim/other 255 (32) 229 (38)   430 (34) 54 (35)  
Catholic 332 (41) 237 (39)   503 (40) 66 (43)  
Protestant 221 (27) 143 (23)   330 (26) 34 (22)  
Education    0.52    0.34
Pre-secondary 622 (77) 477 (78)   975 (77) 124 (81)  
Secondary and above 187 (23) 132 (22)   289 (23) 30 (19)  
Alcohol abuse    0.71    0.82
No 296 (84) 291 (85)   508 (85) 79 (84)  
Yes 55 (16) 50 (15)   90 (15) 15 (16)  
Number of partners†    0.26    <0.01
1 587 (90) 492 (88)   967 (91) 112 (79)  
2+ 64 (10) 66 (12)   100 (9) 30 (21)  
Age at first sex    <0.01    <0.01
<18 222 (28) 248 (42)   392 (32) 78 (52)  
18-19 215 (27) 159 (27)   339 (27) 35 (23)  
20+ 353 (45) 188 (31)   503 (41) 38 (25)  
Condom use‡    0.85    0.27
Never 500 (77) 429 (77)   826 (78) 103 (75)  
Sometimes 133 (21) 115 (21)   218 (20) 30 (22)  
Often/always 11 (2) 12 (2)   18 (2) 5 (3)  
Female circumcision    0.06    0.98
No 624 (77) 442 (73)   950 (75) 116 (75)  
Yes 185 (23) 166 (27)   313 (25) 38 (25)  
Test positive STIs*    <0.01    <0.01
Negative 715 (88) 500 (82)   1098 (87) 117 (76)  
Positive 94 (12) 109 (18)   166 (13) 37 (24)  
STIs Symptoms    0.06    0.04
No 498 (71) 392 (66)   797 (70) 93 (62)  
Yes 204 (29) 201 (34)   347 (30) 58 (38)  
HSV-2    -    <0.01
No - -   755 (60) 54 (35)  
Yes - -   509 (40) 100 (65)  
  1. *Syphilis, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium.