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Table 4 Overview of genes belonging to selected signaling pathways (FGF, TGFβ/BMP, Wnt, Hedgehog, Retinoic acid, Notch) or to the homeobox gene superfamily, showing differential expression in mandibular (inferior) versus maxillary (superior) molars

From: Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs

Pathway/Family Gene names (fold change) Number of genes Differentially expressed in teeth Not known to be differentially expressed in teeth New genes in teeth Total new genes and new differentially expressed genes
FGF: lower molars Fgfr4 (2.58); Fgf16 (1.86) 2 0 0 2 2
TGFβ: lower molars Amhr2 (1.68); Acvr2b (1.26) 2 0 1 1 2
TGFβ: upper molars Smad9 (-1.53) 1 0 0 1 1
Wnt: lower molars Camk2a (1.83); Fzd8 (1.67); Wnt9b (1.55); Camk2b (1.50); Wnt11 (1.39); Plcb2(1.39); Fzd5 (1.29); Cer1 (1.26) 8 0 0 8 8
Wnt: upper molars Vangl1 (-1.22) 1 0 0 1 1
Hedgehog: upper molars Gli1 (-1.34) 1 1 0 0 0
Retinoic acid: lower molars Rorb (2.09); Rbp2 (1.59); Crabp2 (1.58); Polr2l (1.37);Rdh8 (1.27) 5 0 0 5 5
Retinoic acid: upper molars Cyp26c1 (-5.04); Aldh1a1 (-1.98); Dhrs3 (-1.51) 3 0 1 2 3
Notch: lower molars Dtx4 (1.81); Dll1 (1.41); Rfng (1.31); Dll3 (1.36) 4 0 0 4 4
Homeobox genes: lower molars Nkx2-3 (3.97). Dlx6 (2.76); Pitx1 (2.18) ; Gsc (2.21); Barx2 (2.01); Hoxa7 (1.91); Lhx9 (1.86); Rhox11 (1.82); Hoxb7 (1.78); Vsx1 (1.69); Phox2b (1.68); Hoxa6 (1.67); Rhox4f (1.65); Nkx6-1 (1.62); Hoxb9 (1.57); Hoxa10 (1.55); Tgif2 (1.53); Lhx1 (1.48); Hmx1 (1.47); Hoxa3 (1.47); Hoxb2 (1.46); Hoxc12 (1.43); Prox2 (1.43); Msx3 (1.43); Gsx1 (1.42); Mixl1 (1.40); Nkx2-1 (1.40); Hoxd8 (1.39); Gbx1 (1.38); Hmx2 (1.36); Lmx1a (1.34); Rhoxa2 (1.23) 32 3 2 27 29
Homeobox genes: upper molars Alx1 (-2.85); Lhx8 (-1.48); Dlx1 (-1.36) 3 1 1 1 2
Total   62 4 5 53 58
  1. Fold changes in expression are indicated in parentheses. As in Table 2, genes known from the literature to be expressed in teeth appear in bold, and those for which a differential expression was reported are underlined. Additional columns scoring the genes previously described as being expressed in developing teeth ("Known in teeth"), as being differentially expressed in both molar types ("Known as differentially expressed"), or "new" (not previously described).