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Table 3 Univariate analysis for prognostic factors of viral-HCC vs. viral marker negative HCC

From: Hepatocellular carcinoma in Native South Asian Pakistani population; trends, clinico-pathological characteristics & differences in viral marker negative & viral-hepatocellular carcinoma

Variables OR(95% CI) P value Variables OR(95% CI) P value
Age(years) 1.026(1.01-1.05) 0.01 Hepatopulmonary Syndrome  
Gender   No 1.0 0.19
  Female 1.0 0.34 Yes 1.62(0.80-3.29)  
  Male 1.26(0.77-2.05)   Total Bilirubin(mg/dl)  
BMI (Kg/m2)   <2 1.0 0.48
  18-22.9 1.0 0.24 2-3 0.93(0.51-1.67)  
  <18 2.08(0.90-4.77)   >3 1.29(0.79-2.09)  
  23-24.9 1.34(0.74-2.43)   Albumin(mg/dl)  
  ≥25 0.98(0.56-1.69)   >3.5 1.0 0.73
Diabetes Mellitus   2.8-3.5 0.73(0.32-1.62)  
  No 1.0 0.02 <2.8 0.74(0.35-1.56)  
  Yes 1.64(1.07-2.53)   ALT (IU/ml)  
Hypertension   Normal 1.0 0.19
  No 1.0 0.11 Elevated 0.58(0.37-0.91)  
  Yes 1.42(0.92-2.21)   Prothrombin time(second)  
Dyslipidemia   <3 1.0 0.14
  No 1.0 0.74 3-6 0.61(0.3-1.02)  
  Yes 0.74(0.17-3.50)   >6 0.91(0.53-1.55)  
Child score 1.02(0.93-1.12) 0.59 Platelets counts (10 9 /L) 1.01(1.0-1.01) <0.001
Child class   AFP(IU/ml)  
  A 1.0 0.50 ≤200 1.0 0.53
  B 1.02(0.50-2.11)   >200 0.86(0.56-1.34)  
  C 1.32(0.65-2.67)   Duration between diagnosis of cirrhosis  
Okuda class   00 2.90(1.43-5.88) <0.001
  I 1.0 0.97 1-55 1.10(0.51-2.40)  
  II 0.99(0.52-1.87)   >55 1.0  
  III 1.15(0.51-2.15)   Mode of diagnosis  
Complication of CLD   On screening 1.0 0.001
  No 1.0 0.39 Incidental 15.36(1.93-122.14)  
  Yes 1.24(0.74-2.07)   Symptomatic 9.82(1.34-72.01)  
Hyperspleenism   Stage of HCC  
  No 1.0 0.14 Non-Advance 1.0 <0.001
  Yes 0.72(0.46-1.11)   Advance 3.08(1.79-5.28)  
Ascites   Macroscopic types of HCC  
  No 1.0 0.84 Solitary 1.0 0.04
  Yes 0.95(0.60-1.51)   Paucifocal (≤ 3 nodules) 1.04(0.62-1.73)  
PSE   Multifocal(>3 nodules) 1.38(0.73-2.63)  
  No 1.0 0.23 Massive/infiltrative 2.7(1.28-5.69)  
  Yes 1.31(0.84-2.03)   Maximum tumor size(cm)  
Esophageal Varices   < 5 1.0 <0.001
  No 1.0   5-10 2.08(1.39-3.75)  
  Yes 0.84(0.55-1.29) 0.44 >10 5.46(3.01-9.93)  
Upper GI bleed   Hepatic Lobes  
  No 1.0   Left 1.0 0.98
  Yes 0.90(0.58-1.40) 0.64 Right 1.05(0.53-2.06)  
Hepatohydrothorax   Both 1.03(0.49-2.16)  
  No 1.0 0.43 Porto Venous Thrombosis  
  Yes 1.32(0.66-2.65)   No 1.0 0.33
Hepatorenal Syndrome   Yes 1.25(0.788-2.00)  
Extra hepatic spread  
  No 1.0 0.50 No 1.0 0.12
  Yes 1.18(0.72-1.94)   Yes 1.58(0.89-2.81)