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Table 5 Comparison of viral marker negative HCC with HCV-HCC, HBV-HCC, combination-HCC

From: Hepatocellular carcinoma in Native South Asian Pakistani population; trends, clinico-pathological characteristics & differences in viral marker negative & viral-hepatocellular carcinoma

  Percentages Unadjusted OR(95% CI) Adjusted OR(95% CI)
Variable HCV HBV Combination NBN HBV Combination NBNC HBV NBNC Combination
Gender           
  Female 35.6 17.6 17.9 25.3 1    1   
  Male 64.4 82.4 82.1 74.7 2.5 (1.5-4.3) 2.5 (1.2-5.1) 1.6 (0.9-2.6) 2.3 (1.3-3.8) 1.5 (0.8-2.5) 2.6 (1.2-5.3)
Diagnosis of HCC           
  On screening 11.9 2.5 1.9 1.0 1    1   
  incidental 8.1 9.2 5.4 13.1 5.3 (1.3-20.9) 0.88 (0.19-3.96) 19.06 (2.3-153.5) 3.4 (0.8-13.9) 10.1 (1.2-84.7) 0.8 (0.17-3.8)
  symptomatic 80.1 88.2 85.7 85.9 5.1 (1.5-17.0) 1.4 (0.53-3.76) 12.5 (1.7-92.7) 4.1 (1.2-13.9) 8.1 (1.1-60.3) 1.4 (0.5-3.9)
BMI (Kg/m 2 )           
  18-22.9 26.7 35.3 26.8 25.3 1    1   
  <18 3.8 11.8 3.6 10.1 2.3 (1.03-2.37) 0.94 (0.19-4.56) 2.8 (1.12-7.11) 2.8 (1.2-6.6) 3.1 (1.1-8.3) 1.1 (0.2-5.0)
  23-24.9 22.9 21.0 26.8 27.3 0.69 (0.39-1.23) 1.16 (0.53-2.52) 1.25 (0.53-2.52) 0.7 (0.3-1.3) 1.3 (0.6-2.4) 1.1 (0.5-2.4)
  ≥ 25 46.6 31.9 42.9 37.4 0.51 (0.31-0.85) 0.91 (0.45-1.82) 0.84 (0.48-1.48) 0.6 (0.3-1.1) 0.9 (0.5-1.7) 1.0 (0.5-2.0)
Maximum diameter (cm)           
  <5 62.5 49.6 62.5 33.3 1    1   
  5-10 29.1 39.5 32.1 40.5 1.7 (1.09-2.6) 1.1 (0.59-2.0) 2.6 (1.5-4.3) 1.5 (0.9-2.5) 2.3 (1.3-4.0) 0.9 (0.5-1.7)
  >10 8.4 10.9 5.4 26.3 1.64 (0.8-3.3) 0.64 (0.18-2.2) 5.8 (3.1-11.1) 1.0 (0.5-2.2) 4.0 (2.0-7.9) 0.5 (0.1-1.7)
Duration between diagnosis of CLD and HCC
  >55 22.1 6.7 19.6 10.1 1    1   
  zero 37.5 52.1 44.6 65.7 4.5 (2.0-10.0) 1.3 (0.62-2.8) 3.8 (1.8-7.8) 3.7 (1.6-8.4) 3.0 (1.4-6.5) 1.1 (0.4-2.4)
  1-55 40.4 41.2 35.7 24.2 3.3 (1.5-7.4) 0.9 (0.4-2.1) 1.3 (0.5-2.8) 2.6 (1.1-6.1) 1.2 (0.5-2.8) 0.7 (0.3-1.7)
Diabetes           
  No 55.8 72.3 78.6 49.5 1    1   
  Yes 44.2 27.7 21.4 50.5 0.48 (0.30-0.76) 0.34 (0.17-0.67) 1.2 (0.8-2.0) 0.5 (0.3-0.9) 1.6 (0.1-2.5) 0.3 (0.2-0.6)