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Table 1 Study characteristics - knee

From: Tranexamic acid and the reduction of blood loss in total knee and hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

Study, Year Patients lost to follow-up and/or excluded after randomization Dose of TXA Method of TXA administration Control Transfusion criteria Method of measuring blood loss Deep vein thrombosis screening method DVT Prophylaxis
Benoni, 1996[17] 0 10 mg/kg 12 minutes prior to tourniquet deflation + 3 hours later, extra does for severe postoperative bleeding. IV S Hb < 85–100 g/L Swabs + drain None. Dalteparin sodium n = 49, enoxaparin n = 37
Hiippala, 1997[12] 3 15 mg/kg prior to tourniquet deflation + two additional 10 mg/kg doses. 2nd dose 3–4 hours after 1st, 3rd 6–7 hours after 2nd. IV S Hb < 100 g/L Swabs + drain Clinical exam +/− venography. Enoxaparin
Jansen, 1999[2] 0 15 mg/kg 30 minutes prior to surgery and every 8 hours for 3 days IV S Post-op hemocrit <26% Swabs + drapes + drain Clinical exam. Fraxiparine.
Engel, 2001[42]   15 mg/kg + second dose of 10 mg/kg after 3 hrs. IV Non-TXA Hb < 100 g/L N/R Clinical exam +/− venography. N/R
Ellis, 2001[36] 0 15 mg/kg prior to tourniquet deflation + 10 mg/kg/hr until 12 hrs after deflation. IV Non-TXA Hemocrit < 27% N/R N/R Enoxaparin.
Tanaka, 2001[41] 0 20 mg/kg 10 minutes before surgery and/or 20 mg/kg 10 minutes prior to tourniquet release. IV S N/R Swabs + drain Venography 7–14 days post-op + perfusion lung scan. None
Veien, 2002[3] 0 10 mg/kg at end of surgery and repeated three hours later. Max dose = 1 g. IV S Hemocrit < 28% Swabs + drain Only those with clinical signs investigated. Fraxiparine.
Good, 2003[18] 4 10 mg/kg prior to tourniquet release + three hours later. IV S Hb < 90 g/L Post-op hemoglobin measurement Clinical exam +/−ultrasound. Fragmin
Zohar, 2004[35] 0 1) → 15 mg/kg prior to tourniquet release + 10 mg/kg/hr for 12 hours after release.       
  IV + O Non-TXA Hemocrit < 28% Drain Clinical exam + ultrasound 5th day post-op Enoxaparin
OR       
2) → 15 mg/kg prior to tourniquet release + 10 mg/kg/hr for 2 hours after + 1 g TXA oral 6 + 12 hours after.       
OR       
3) → 1 g TXA orally 1 hr before surgery + after surgery every 6 hrs for 18 hrs       
Orpen, 2006[5] 0 15 mg/kg at time cement mixing commenced. IV S Post-op Hb < 90 g/L Swabs + drain + dressings Ultrasound on both legs 5th day post-op. Fragmin
Camarasa, 2006[31] 1 10 mg/kg prior to tourniquet deflation then + 3 hours later. IV S Hb < 80 g/L or < 10 g/L dependant on symptoms. Swabs + dressings + drain Clinical exam +/− ultrasound. Dalteparin sodium
Álvarez, 2007[6] 15 10 mg/kg + 1 mg/kg/hr perfusion. IV S Hb < 80 g/L or patients showing signs/symptoms of hypoxia Drains Clinical exam. Bemiparin
Molloy, 2007[19] 0 500 mg tranexamic acid five minutes prior to deflation of tourniquet + three hours later. IV Non-TXA Post-op hemocrit < 25% Post-op hemoglobin measuremen Clinical exam. Aspirin
Kakar 2009[4] 0 10 mg/kg prior to tourniquet deflation + 1 mg/kg/h until wound closure. IV S Hb < 80 g/L or <10 g/L for those over 60 and/or those with cardiopulmonary disease. Drains N/R N/R
Wong, 2010[11] 1 1.5 gm or 3 gm applied to joint for 5 min at end of surgery. TP S Hb < 80 g/L or Hb < 100 g/L if symptoms developed. Post-op hemoglobin measurements. Clinical exam + ultrasound on post-op days 2 + 3. Rivaroxaban or enoxaparin
Sa-ngasoongsong, 2011[24] 0 250 mg /25 mL injected after fascial closure. IA S When hemocrit < 25% Hb measured, Hb < 8gm% or symptoms of anemia. Formula Duplex Doppler on 4th postoperative day. Ankle motion + exercizes.
Ishida, 2011[43] 0 2000 mg/20 mL through intra-articular drain. IA S N/R Drains N/R Arteriovenous impulse system for 24 hours surgery + heparin sodium.
Roy, 2012[37] 0 500 mg/5 mL through two intra-articular drain. IA S Hemocrit ≤28%; Drain collection ≥ 500 mL in 1st 8–10 hours + Hb loss ≥ 4 g/dL; symptoms of amenia. Weight of swabs. Only symptomatic cases were evaluated with ultrasonography + CT. Stockings + early mobilization + Dalteparin
  1. DVT – deep venous thrombosis, C – Control, TXA – ranexamic acid, S – saline, IV – intravenously, TP – topically, O – orally, N/R – not reported.