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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional status of study population according to place of residence

From: Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors

Parameters Total (n = 300) Rural (n = 150) Urban (n = 150) P value
Mothers characteristics     
Age (years)* 30.0 ± 5.6 29.6 ± 6.1 30.4 ± 5.6 0.186
Family setting     0.001
  Monogamy 265 (88.3) 119 (79.3) 146 (97.3)  
  Polygamy 35 (11.7) 31 20.7) 4 (2.7)  
Parity     0.001
  1 83 (27.7) 24 (16.0) 59 (39.3)  
  2 183 (61.0) 101 (67.3) 82 (54.7)  
  5 – 7 34 (11.3) 25 (16.7) 9 (6.0)  
Age at first birth     0.001
  15 – 19 29 (9.7) 22 (14.7) 7 (4.7)  
  20 – 24 127 (42.3) 77 (51.3) 50 (33.6)  
  25 – 29 96 (32.0) 41 (27.3) 55 (36.9)  
  30 – 34 37 (12.3) 5 (3.3) 32 (21.3)  
  35 - 39 8 (2.7) 3 (2.0) 5 (3.4)  
Educational level of mother     0.001
  No formal education 4 (1.3) 3 (2.0) 1 (0.7)  
  Primary 72 (24.0) 55 (36.7) 17 (11.3)  
  Secondary 155 (51.7) 79 (52.7) 76 (50.7)  
  Postsecondary 69 (23.0) 13 (8.7) 56 (37.3)  
Social class     0.001
  Upper 19 (6.3) 0 (0.0) 19 (12.7)  
  Middle 50 (16.7) 15 (10.0) 35 (23.3)  
  Lower 231 (77.0) 135 (90.0) 96 (64.0)  
Height, less than 152 cm 27 (9.0) 11 (7.3) 16 (10.7) 0.313
BMI (kg/m 2 )* 24.9 ± 5.0 24.4 ± 5.0 29.4 ± 4.9 0.092
Undernutrition, BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 20 (6.7) 16 (10.7) 4 (2.7) 0.014
Children characteristics     
Age (months)* 25.3 ± 16.4 31.3 ± 16.4 19.3 ± 4.0 0.001
Sex     0.248
  Male 142 (47.3) 66 (44.0) 76 (50.7)  
  Female 158 (52.7) 84 (56.0) 74 (49.3)  
Birth order     0.000
  1 118 (39.3) 39 (26.0) 79 (52.7)  
  2-4 161 (53.6) 97 (64.7) 64 (42.7)  
  5 – 7 21 (7.0) 14 (9.3) 7 (4.7)  
Weight-for-age z score, < -2 SD 43 (14.3) 29 (19.4) 14 (9.3) 0.001
Height-for-Age z score, < -2 SD 84 (28.0) 65 (43.3) 19 (12.6) 0.001
Weight-for-height z score, < -2 SD 31 (8.3) 18 (12.0) 13 (8.7) 0.118
  1. Values are number (%) unless otherwise stated; *values are mean ± SD; Adjusted for social class. Upper social class includes parents such as senior government employee, high scale traders, and professionals, middle class include junior government employee, teachers and technicians while lower social class are peasant farmers, artisans, security agents, messengers, apprentice, laborers and the unemployed.