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Table 1 Medical conditions accompanying persistent or intractable hiccups

From: The adjuvant use of lansoprazole, clonazepam and dimenhydrinate for treating intractable hiccups in a patient with gastritis and reflux esophagitis complicated with myocardial infarction: a case report

  Medical disorders
Cardiovascular disorders myocardial ischemia; angina pectoris; pericarditis [2, 3]; myocardial infarction (MI) [2, 3, 6]; MI as single presenting symptom [4]; internal jugular vein cannulation (as a complication) [7]
Esophago-gastrointestinal disorders esophageal and gastric distention; erosive esophagitis; herpetic esophagitis; gastro-esophageal reflux; gastric and duodenal ulcers; gastric, pancreatic and colon cancers; hepatoma and liver metastasis; pancreatitis; cholecystitis; ascites; gastric outlet obstruction; small bowel obstruction; subdiaphragmatic abscess; gastrointestinal investigations [2, 3]
Central nervous system disorders traumatic brain injury; brain abscess; meningitis; brain stem lesion; medulla oblongata lesion; lateral medullary infarction [2, 3]; brain stem tumor (as primary manifestation) [8]; multiple sclerosis (as single symptom) [9]
Pulmonary and thoracic disorders pneumonia; pleuritis; asthma; lung tumors; thoracic herpes zoster; acute negative intrathoracic pressure; mediastinal local nerve compression or infection; bronchoscopy [3, 4]
Renal disorders renal failure; uremia; renal cancer; hypernephroma [3, 4]
Electrolyte and metabolic disorders hyponatremia; hypokaliemia; hypocalcaemia; azotemia; uncontrolled diabetes mellitus [3, 4]
Others local and general anesthesia; alcohol intake; psychogenic origin disorders [3, 4]