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Table 1 The associations between characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus and the presence of antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in serum

From: Antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with lower body weight and autonomic neuropathy

  Patients GnRH IgM −/+ GnRH IgG −/+
  (N = 39) OR, 95% CI OR, 95% CI
Age (years) 52.4 ± 12.5 1.469 (0.927-1.034) 0.019 (0.964–1.127)
Gender (Female/male) n (%) 27(69)/12(31) 1.696 (0.413-1.976) 2.667 (0.452–15.722)
Type of diabetes (1/2) 36/3 1.00 (0.082–12.164) 3.100 (0.235–40.895)
Duration of the disease (years) 26.3 ± 13.1 0.654 (0.940–1.042) 0.048 (0.974–1.126)
BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 5.8 0.835 (0.699–0.998) 1.103 (0.958–1.269)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 65.9 ± 9.9 0.983 (0.917–1.053) 0.968 (0.880–1.063)
Esophageal dysmotility n (%)
No (reference) 12 (31) 1.000 1.000
Yes 27 (69) 0.589 (0.143–2.424) 2.500 (0.259–24.096)
Gastric dysmotility n (%)
No (reference) 32 (82) 1.000 -
Yes 7 (18) 3.407 (0.633–18.35) -
Retinopathy n (%)
No (reference) 11 (28) 1.000 1.000
Yes 28 (72) 0.829 (0.192–3.577) 2.174 (0.224–21.079)
Angiopathy n (%)
No (reference) 26 (67) 1.000 1.000
Yes 13 (33) 0.480 (0.106–2.179) 0.350 (0.036–3.358)
Microalbuminuria n (%)
No (reference) 35 (90) - 1.000
Yes 4 (10) - 7.750 (0.842–71.314)
Macroalbuminuria n (%)
No (reference) 36 (92) 1.000 1.000
Yes 3 (8) 4.545 (0.372–55.542) 3.100 (0.235–40.895)
Autonomic neuropathy n (%)
No (reference) 29 (74) 1.000 1.000
Yes 10 (26) 1.481 (0.334–6.572) 9.000 (1.327–61.025)
Peripheral neuropathy n (%)
No (reference) 20 (51) 1.000 1.000
Yes 19 (49) 0.857 (0.226–3.254) 1.062 (0.187–6.052)
  1. BMI Body mass index, HbA1c Glycosylated hemoglobin. Values are given as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or n (%). OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, - = calculations not possible to carry out due to a low number of patients. In the statistical calculations, patients were divided into those with and without (reference) antibodies.