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Table 2 The association between various symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus and the presence of antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in serum

From: Antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with lower body weight and autonomic neuropathy

Symptoms Patients (N = 39) GnRH IgM −/+ GnRH IgG −/+
  n (%) OR, 95% CI OR, 95% CI
Loss of appetite
No (reference) 31 (80) 1.000 1.000
Yes 8 (20) 4.792 (0.928–24.750) 0.743 (0.074–7.436)
Swallowing disturbances
No (reference) 32 (82) 1.000 1.000
Yes 7 (18) 0.764 (0.127–4.596) 0.900 (0.088–9.178)
Meal-related cough
No (reference) 33 (85) 1.000 1.000
Yes 6 (15) 1.000 (0.158–6.330) 3.625 (0.494–26.611)
Early satiety
No (reference) 24 (62) 1.000 1.000
Yes 15 (38) 0.606 (0.148–2.486) 0.769 (0.123–4.821)
Nausea
No (reference) 28 (72) 1.000 1.000
Yes 11 (28) 0.343 (0.062–1.898) 0.460 (0.047–4.460)
Abdominal fullness
No (reference) 23 (59) 1.000 1.000
Yes 16 (41) 0.300 (0.067–1.347) 0.240 (0.025–2.286)
Bloating
No (reference) 19 (49) 1.000 1.000
Yes 20 (51) 0.278 (0.067–1.147) 0.941 (0.165–5.361)
Regurgitation
No (reference) 27 (69) 1.000 1.000
Yes 12 (31) 0.114 (0.013–1.009) 2.667 (0.452–15.722)
Constipation
No (reference) 28 (72) 1.000 1.000
Yes 11 (28) 0.675 (0.145–3.135) 0.460 (0.047–4.460)
Diarrhea
No (reference) 33 (85) 1.000 1.000
Yes 6 (15) 1.000 (0.158–6.330) 1.120 (0.107–11.726)
Symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemia
No (reference) 30 (77) 1.000 1.000
Yes 9 (23) 0.764 (0.127–4.596) 0.900 (0.088–9.178)
Postprandial perspiration
No (reference) 34 (87) 1.000 1.000
Yes 5 (13) 1.394 (0.203–9.585) 1.450 (0.133–15.793)
  1. n number, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval. In the statistical calculations, patients were divided into those with and without (reference) antibodies.