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Table 2 Pre-delivery characteristics of study participants and infant outcomes at birth by maternal HIV-status

From: Predictors of fetal anemia and cord blood malaria parasitemia among newborns of HIV-positive mothers

Mother HIV+ HIV- Chi square p value
Maternal anemia 232 (78.7) 350 (51.6) 0.368 0.832
Maternal malaria 60 (20.3) 91 (12.8) 5.645 0.018
Married or cohabiting 363 (82.5) 476 (66.7) 34.390 <0.001
Up to 9 years of formal education 236 (53.6) 525 (73.8) 49.521 <0.001
Rural residence 333 (75.7) 431 (60.5) 27.937 <0.001
19 years or younger 20 (4.5) 94 (13.2) 37.734 <0.001
20-24 years 85 (19.3) 191 (26.8)   
25 years or older 335 (76.1) 427 (60.0)   
First trimester 35 (8.0) 73 (10.3) 5.938 0.051
Second trimester 184 (41.8) 329 (46.5)   
Third trimester 221 (50.2) 305 (43.1)   
Primigravid 129 (29.3) 228 (32.0) 5.509 0.064
Secundigravid 157 (35.7) 207 (29.1)   
Multigravid 154 (35.0) 277 (38.9)   
Nulliparous 9 (2.9) 273 (38.9) 156.332 <0.001
Primiparous 173 (55.6) 183 (26.1)   
Secundiparous 73 (23.5) 138 (19.7)   
Multiparous 56 (18.0) 107 (15.3)   
CD4-count at recruitment < 350 cells/mm3 133 (45.1) - - -
CD4-count at recruitment < 200 cells/mm3 78 (26.4) - - -
Infant     
Anemia (Hb < 12.5 g/dL) 169 (57.3) 319 (71.7) 16.374 <0.001
Female sex, 121 (41.0)) 256 (54.4) 12.924 0.002
Preterm delivery 72 (24.4) 67 (14.5) 11.77 0.003
Low birth weight 1 63 (21.4) 67 (14.7) 7.071 0.029
Cord malaria present 72 (24.4) 52 (11.7) 20.950 <0.001