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Table 2 Comparison of the neuropsychological performances of MCI patients with vitamin B12 deficiency with the performances of MCI patients with normal vitamin B12 levels

From: Do MCI patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have distinctive cognitive deficits?

Cognitive domain MCI vitamin B12 deficiency (n=15) MCI normal vitamin B12 (n=45) p– value
Neuropsychological tests # mean ± SD # mean ± SD
Attention and executive functions    
 Cancellation task −0.004±0.98 0.07±0.97 0.90
 Digit span backward 0.78±1.07 0.24±0.72 0.13
 Clock draw 0.80±0.71 0.59±0.89 0.84
Initiative    
 Verbal semantic fluency −0.22±1.40 −0.55±1.40 0.30
 Motor initiative 0.59±0.57 0.12±1.40 0.51
 Graphomotor initiative 0.24±0.50 0.10±0.71 0.58
Conceptual thinking    
 Raven progressive matrices −0.08±0.90 0.10±0.97 0.62
 Interpretation of proverbs 1.03±0.68 0.36±1.00 0.09
Calculation    
 Basic written calculation −0.18±0.78 −0.16±1.08 0.62
Language    
 Token test 0.24±1.05 −0.12±1.51 0.74
Orientation    
 Personal, spatial and temporal −1.99±2.76 −1.67±2.29 0.88
Immediate memory    
 Digit span forward 0.87±1.52 0.64±1.34 0.71
Episodic memory and associative learning    
 Verbal paired-associate learning −0.70±1.23 −1.42±0.65 0.11
Logical Memory (LM; immediate recall) −1.37±1.43 −1.64±0.93 0.46
Word recall −0.89±1.11 −1.30±1.24 0.45
Forgetting index −1.26±0.97 −0.67±2.34 0.55
  1. # z scores are shown; data are standardized according to the age and education norms from the Portuguese population.
  2. Forgetting Index = [(LM delayed recall – LM immediate) / LM immediate)]*100.
  3. Mann–Whitney test.