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Table 1 Maternal characteristics by ethnicity, expressed in prevalence

From: Gestational diabetes and macrosomia by race/ethnicity in Hawaii

Maternal characteristics White N (%) Hawaiian/PIaN (%) Filipina N (%) Other AsiansbN (%) P-value
Maternal age (yrs)
< 25 3340 (26.1) 9174 (44.0) 2667 (26.9) 1082 (11.7) < 0.01
≥ 25 9473 (73.9) 11677 (56.0) 7255 (73.1) 8143 (88.3)  
BMI
Underweight/Normal 8243 (66.2) 9754 (49.1) 5958 (63.0) 6554 (74.3) < 0.01
Overweight/Obese 4217 (33.8) 10107 (50.9) 3506 (37.1) 2268 (25.7)  
Maternal nativity
US born 11274 (88.0) 17316 (83.1) 4775 (48.1) 5945 (64.8) < 0.01
Foreign born 1540 (12.0) 3535 (17.0) 5147 (51.9) 3224 (35.2)  
Household income
< $10,000 703 (5.8) 6543 (33.7) 1541 (16.9) 755 (8.6) < 0.01
$10,000-49,999 5791 (47.9) 8774 (45.2) 4508 (49.5) 3037 (34.6)  
≥ $50,000 5586 (46.2) 4098 (21.1) 3067 (33.7) 4996 (56.9)  
Maternal education
High school or less 4665 (36.7) 13621 (66.8) 3983 (40.8) 2254 (24.8) < 0.01
Some college 8037 (63.3) 6758 (33.2) 5769 (59.2) 6839 (75.2)  
Married
No 2343 (18.3) 12360 (59.3) 4127 (41.6) 1832 (19.9) < 0.01
Yes 10470 (81.7) 8492 (40.7) 5795 (58.4) 7393 (80.1)  
Smoking last 3 months of pregnancy
No 11936 (94.7) 18223 (88.9) 9378 (95.7) 8552 (94.3) < 0.01
Yes 669 (5.3) 2272 (11.1) 427 (4.3) 518 (5.7)  
1 trimester prenatal care
No 1253 (10.0) 4908 (23.9) 1457 (15.0) 863 (9.4) < 0.01
Yes 11347 (90.0) 15664 (76.1) 8228 (85.0) 8289 (90.6)  
  1. aIncludes Samoan, Guamanian, Other Pacific Islanders.
  2. bIncludes Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, and other Asians.