Relative expression of tppA , phiA , brlA , vosA and treB in A. niger assayed with LA and PLA. The concentrations were 150 mM LA and 15/135 mM PLA/LA. Gene expressions were analyzed after 3 and 7 days using actin as an internal standard. For all genes, the average expressions observed for LA3 were normalized to 1. Error bars show standard error of the mean. The asterisk indicates expressions that were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.0001) compared with the treatments in the same group.