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Table 2 Reports of autoimmune hypophysitis with extra-pituitary spread over the cavernous sinus

From: Autoimmune hypophysitis presenting with intracranial multi-organ involvement: three case reports and review of the literature

Literature Age/sex Chief complaint Organ of inflammatory spread Remarks
Fujisawa, 2009[9] 49/F Diabetes insipidus, retroorbital pain, diplopia, anterior pituitary hypofunction Bilateral ICA occlusion Steroid therapy
Demetri et al., 2010[10] 29/F Headache, visual disturbance Isolated sphenoidal mucosa Subtotal removal
Melgar et al., 2006[11] 38/F Severe headache, cerebral ischemia Bilateral ICA occlusion ECA-ICA bypass
Thodou et al., 1995[12] 18/F Severe headache, diabetes insipidus Basal hypothalamus  
Zoeller et al., 2012[13] 41/M Optic neuritis, fatigue, loss of libido Unilateral ICA stenosis Past history of optic neuritis, steroid
Present Case 1 60/F Rapid visual deterioration, masked diabetes insipidus Bilateral hypothalami Steroid pulse therapy
Present Case 2 53/F Severe retroorbital pain Unilateral ICA stenosis Steroid pulse therapy
Present Case 3 27/F Headache, fatigue, diabetes insipidus Extradural sphenoidal mucosa Past history of germinoma, steroid pulse therapy
  1. F, Female; M, Male; ICA, Internal carotid artery; ECA, External carotid artery.