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Table 2 Parameters in whole group (n = 12) and those with ECG measurements (n = 9)

From: Increased heart rate variability but no effect on blood pressure from 8 weeks of hatha yoga – a pilot study

Parameters Before/Baseline (n = 12) After 8 weeks’ yoga (n =12) P-value (ES) Before/Baseline (n = 9) After 8 weeks’ yoga (n = 9) P-value (ES)
Age (y) 49.6 ± 6.2 - - 50.1 ± 4.8 - -
Height (m) 1.76 ± 0.08    1.77 ± 0.09   -
Male 8    6   
Women 4    3   
Weight (kg) 80.0 ± 11.9 80.6 ± 12.0 0.22 84.9 ± 11.9 85.4 ± 12.1 0.39
Maximal Handgrip/kg 36.6 ± 8.6 39.0 ± 10.0 0.12 (ES: 0.28) 38.1 ± 9.4 42.5 ± 10.8 0.02* (ES: 0.46)
Waist : hip ratio 0.87 ± 0.08 0.87 ± 0.08 1.0 0.88 ± 0.08 0.88 ± 0.08 0.67
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0 ± 3.7 26.2 ± 3.8 0.23 27.1 ± 3.6 27.3 ± 3.9 0.38
BP mean from left and right arm Systolic/Diastolic (mm Hg) 123.3 ± 12.4 79.8 ± 6.3 Md 119.3 80.8 124.1 ± 11.7 82.2 ± 7.6 Md 120.0 83.0 0.62 0.18 123.3 ± 13.2 79 ± 7.4 Md 118.5 75.0 125.8 ± 13.3 83.9 ± 10.7 Md 120.5 83.0 0.89 0.21
Heart rate from Blood Pressure cuff (bpm) 66.5 ± 8.4 Md 66.0 67.4 ± 11.0 Md 64.3 0.83 63.1 ± 4.9 Md 62.0 68.4 ± 12.1 Md 62.0 0.20
Heart rate (from ECG) (n = 10) (bpm) 61.0 ± 6.2 (n = 10) Md (n = 10) 60.5 62.0 ± 10.0(n = 10) Md (n = 10) 62.3 0.77 61.4 ± 6.4 Md 61.0 61.0 ± 10.0 Md 57.3 0.91
  1. Data are expressed as means ± SD and, when stated, median.
  2. Y = years, m = meters, bpm = beats per minute, ES = effect size (change/sd).
  3. * = p < 0.05 significant.
  4. Effect size noted when of interest.
  5. Md = Median.