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Table 3 Expression stability of four HKGs in different developing stages evaluated by BestKeeper software programs

From: Validation of reference genes for expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

Factor ARF4 ARF1 RP4 RP18 BK(n = 4) BK(n = 3) BK(n = 2)
n 21 21 21 21 21 21 21
GM[CP] 23.59 21.62 19.34 16.81 20.18 19.16 19.07
AM[CP] 23.62 21.64 19.37 16.83 20.2 19.18 19.09
min [CP] 21.41 19.67 17.27 15.36 18.28 17.35 17.38
max [CP] 25.24 22.99 20.96 18.16 21.23 20.21 20.43
SD[±CP] 1.13 0.75 0.83 0.60 0.77 0.71 0.65
CV[%CP] 4.79 3.48 4.29 3.59 3.82 3.69 3.41
min[x-fold] −4.96 −4.2 −4.2 −2.88 3.83 3.6 3.29
max[x-fold] 3.38 2.73 3.09 2.68 2.1 2.1 2.63
SD[±x-fold] 2.25 1.72 1.82 1.54 1.73 1.65 1.59
  1. Descriptive statistics of four HKGs based on their crossing point (CP) values. Abbreviations: n: number of samples, GM [CP] The geometric mean of CP, AM [CP], The arithmetic mean of CP, min [CP] and max [CP] The extreme values of CP, SD [±CP] The standard deviation of the CP CV [%CP] The coefficient of variance expressed as a percentage on the CP level, min [x-fold] and max [x-fold] The extreme values of expression levels expressed as an absolute x-fold over- or under-regulation coefficient, SD [± x-fold] Standard deviation of the absolute regulation coefficients. Results from three independent experiments are shown. In the three last columns the BestKeeper index is computed together with the same descriptive parameters, for four genes (ARF4, ARF1, RP4 and RP18) or for three genes after removal of ARF4 (ARF1, RP4 and RP18) or for two genes after removal of RP4 (ARF1 and RP18).