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Table 5 Relationship between life style and kidney disease status

From: Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study

  No kidney disease Mild kidney disease Moderate kidney disease Total cohort p value
Smoking status      
 Regular smoker 28 (9.60) 3 (100) 10 (35.70) 41 (11.70) 0.000**
 Non-smoker 264 (90.40) 27 (90.00) 18 (64.30) 309 (88.30)
Water intake      
 Scanty, < 6 glasses a day 76 (26.00) 8 (23.30) 13 (46.40) 96 (27.40) 0.06
 Adequate 216 (74.00) 23 (76.70) 15 (53.60) 254 (72.60)
Habit of adding salt      
 Yes 74 (25.30) 5 (16.70) 6 (21.40) 85 (24.30) 0.5
 No 218 (74.70) 25 (83.30) 22 (78.60) 265 (75.70)
Unsaturated fat intake      
 Yes 76 (26.0) 4 (13.30) 6 (21.40) 86 (24.60) 0.3
 No 216 (74.0) 26 (86.70) 22 (78.60) 264 (75.40)  
  1. **p value < 0.0001, calculated by Chi-square test.