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Table 8 Univariate analyses of risk factors for kidney disease and interaction terms; binomial logistic regression

From: Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort study

Variables Kidney diseasea
  Prevalence odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Age (for every 1 year increase in age) 1.05 (1.03-1.07) 0.000**
Age groups   
 40+ 4.0 (2.2-7.2) 0.000**
 ≤ 39 Ref  
HDL 0.96 (0.9-0.99) 0.03*
Gender   
 Male 1.6 (0.9-2.8) 0.13
 Female Ref  
Diabetes mellitus status   
 Diabetic 2.8 (1.3-6.4) 0.01*
 Non-diabetic Ref  
Hypertension status   
 Hypertensive 2.3 (1.3-4.4) 0.006*
 Normotensive Ref  
Smoking status   
 Regular smoker 2.7 (1.3-5.6) 0.007*
 Non-smoker Ref  
Interaction terms
Hypertension and smoking interaction   
 Normotensive & smoker 2.4 (0.98-5.8) 0.054
 Hypertension & non-smoker 2.2 (1.097-4.4) 0.03*
 Hypertension & smoker 8.9 (2.3-35.2) 0.002*
 Normotensive & non-smoker Ref  
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus interaction   
 Normotensive & diabetic 2.0 (0.6-6.6) 0.2
 Hypertension & non-diabetic 2.0 (1.006-4.1) 0.048*
 Hypertension & diabetic 5.7 (1.8-18.0) 0.003*
 Normotensive & non-diabetic Ref|  
Diabetes mellitus and smoking interaction   
 Non-diabetic & smoker 2.6 (1.2-5.8) 0.02*
 Diabetic & non-smoker 2.7 (1.1-6.9) 0.04*
 Diabetic & smoker 6.5 (1.3-33.4) 0.03*
 Non-diabetic & non-smoker Ref  
  1. a. The reference category is: absence of kidney disease.
  2. *p value < 0.05; **p value < 0.0001 calculated by binary logistic regression.
  3. Abbreviations are: CI-Confidence Interval, Ref-reference.