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Table 1 Patient characteristics of the three groups of COPD patients selected according to type of PR program*

From: Retrospective survival in elderly COPD patients receiving pulmonary rehabilitation; a study including maintenance rehabilitation

  Total In-patient group Out-patient group Maintenance group P-value
(n = 193) (n = 72) (n = 72) (n = 49)
Age, yrs 69.2 (8.6) 67.5 (8.2) 70.4 (9.1) 69.9 (8.2) 0.11
Sex, male (%) 92 (47.7) 41 (56.9) 32 (44.4) 19 (38.8) 0.11
BMI, kg/m2 25.2 (6.1) 25.4 (5.6) 25.4 (5.6) 24.8 (6.9) 0.85
FVC Litres 2.25 (0.81) 2.53 (0.97) 2.23 (0.68) 1.92 (0.55) < 0.001
FVC % predicted 70.8 (20.1) 74.7 (20.6) 71.5 (19.8) 63.8 (18.3) 0.010
FEV1, Litres 1.30 (0.62) 1.50 (0.76) 1.29 (0.51) 1.03 (0.39) < 0.001
FEV1 % predicted 50.7 (19.6) 54.5 (21.8) 52.2 (17.7) 42.9 (15.0) 0.004
FEV1/FVC % 56.3 (14.6) 56.5 (14.5) 57.8 (14.3) 53.2 (14.4) 0.167
PaO2 kPa (air)** 9.37 (1.33) 9.55 (1.07) 9.36 (1.37) 9.12 (1.61) 0.209
PaCO2 kPa (air)** 5.48 (0.93) 5.35 (0.88) 5.49 (0.83) 5.66 (1.12) 0.199
6 min WD, m*** 359.6 (135.7) 379.9 (128.8) 367.4 (158.4) 316.4 (104.1) 0.060
PR days 26.1 (18.2) 30.3 (20.4) 18.9 (10.4) 30.0 (20.3) < 0.001
Hospital stays†† 0.78 (1.35) 0.35 (0.85) 0.86 (1.46) 1.17 (1.60) 0.003
Hospital days†† 5.2 (11.1) 2.90 (8.89) 4.78 (8.26) 9.04 (15.69) 0.010
LTOT, %††† 37.8 26.4 29.2 67.3 < 0.001
Survival, yrs 7.3 (3.5) 8.1 (3.6) 6.7 (3.1) 7.1 (3.9) 0.042
Mortality, %†††† 53.9 50.0 47.2 69.4 0.056
  1. *Data are shown in mean (s) with standard deviation in parenthesis. Testing means or percentages across groups. **Group numbers are 179, 68, 64 and 47, respectively. ***Group numbers are 165, 69, 57 and 39, respectively. ††Group numbers are 191, 71, 72 and 48, respectivley. †††Group numbers are 73, 19, 21 and 33, respectively. †††† Group numbers are 104, 36, 34 and 34, respectively.
  2. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; s = standard deviation; BMI = body mass index; FVC = forced vital capacity; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 second; PaO2 = partial arterial oxygen pressure (air); PaCO2 = partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (air); 6 minWD = 6 minutes walking distance. PR = pulmonary rehabilitation; LTOT = long-term oxygen therapy.