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Table 1 Maternal and infant characteristics of responders and non-responders to 2-year neurodevelopmental follow-up

From: Telephone interviews and online questionnaires can be used to improve neurodevelopmental follow-up rates

Characteristic Responders Non-responders RR [95% CI] for non-responder p
Maternal characteristics (n = 1292) (n = 844)   
Age, mean (SD) 30.6 (5.6) 28.0 (6.0) 0.95 [0.95 to 0.96] <0.001
Non-white ethnic group, n (%) 250 (19.4) 279 (33.1) 1.50 [1.35 to 1.67] <0.001
Non-English first language, n (%) 165 (13.0) 161 (19.5) 1.32 [1.16 to 1.50] <0.001
Unsupported mother, n (%) 127 (9.8) 194 (23.0) 1.69 [1.51 to 1.88] <0.001
Highest educational qualification, n (%)     
None or secondary education 415 (32.6) 448 (55.1) Baseline -
Tertiary education 760 (59.6) 296 (36.4) 0.54 [0.48 to 0.61] <0.001
Other 99 (7.8) 69 (8.5) 0.80 [0.65 to 0.96] 0.02
Occupational status, n (%)a     
Managerial, professional or intermediate 742 (57.9) 269 (32.0) Baseline  
Semi-routine or routine 184 (14.4) 137 (16.3) 1.60 [1.36 to 1.89] <0.001
No occupation 355 (27.7) 436 (51.7) 2.07 [1.84 to 2.34] <0.001
Difficult financial situation, n (%) 80 (6.2) 74 (8.8) 1.24 [1.04 to 1.47] 0.02
Poor mental health, n (%) 141 (11.0) 119 (14.1) 1.18 [1.02 to 1.37] 0.02
Poor general health, n (%) 83 (6.4) 87 (10.3) 1.33 [1.14 to 1.56] <0.001
Infant characteristics (n = 1422) (n = 954)   
Late/moderately preterm, n (%)b 651 (45.8) 472 (49.5) 1.09 [0.99 to 1.21] 0.08
Birthweight, n (%)     
Low birthweight (1501-2500 g) 404 (28.4) 298 (31.2) 1.08 [0.98 to 1.20] 0.13
Very low birthweight (≤1500 g) 18 (1.3) 13 (1.4) 1.07 [0.70 to 1.63] 0.75
Fetal growth restriction, n (%)c 273 (19.2) 213 (22.3) 1.12 [1.00 to 1.25] 0.06
Multiple birth, n (%) 262 (18.4) 219 (23.0) 1.17 [1.05 to 1.31] 0.005
Any respiratory support, n (%)d 100 (7.0) 57 (6.0) 0.90 [0.73 to 1.11] 0.32
Intra-cranial abnormality, n (%)e 12 (0.8) 7 (0.7) 0.92 [0.51 to 1.66] 0.77
Major congenital anomaly, n (%) 16 (1.1) 13 (1.4) 1.12 [0.74 to 1.68] 0.60
Any breast milk at discharge, n (%)f 1001 (70.4) 519 (54.4) 0.67 [0.61 to 0.74] <0.001
  1. aClassified using UK National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC). bLate and moderately preterm is birth at 32-36 completed weeks of gestation. cFetal growth restriction calculated using customised antenatal growth charts [21]. dAny respiratory support includes infants who were ventilated or received non-invasive respiratory support. eIntra-cranial abnormality includes Grade III or IV intra-ventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and Grade II or III neonatal encephalopathy. fIncludes breast milk fed by any method.