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Table 1 Direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity

From: The direct and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity: a systematic review

Study Costs included direct Cost included indirect Type of study Results direct Results indirect Results total (€ 2009) Percentage of results that are indirect
Anis et al. 2010[32], Canada Hospital inpatient and outpatient visits, physician services, drug costs, health research and other health care Morbidity due to both long and short-term disability Prevalence based PAF CA$5.96 billion CA$5 billion $10.96 billion (€7.3 billion 2009) 54%
Konnopka et al. 2011[36], Germany Inpatient and outpatient treatment, rehabilitation and non-medical costs (administration, research etc) Sickness absence, early retirement and mortality using human capital approach Prevalence based PAF €4.854 billion (2.1% of total healthcare costs for 2002) €5.019 billion €9.873 billion (€11.01 billion 2009) 51%
Schmid et al. 2004[37], Switzerland All healthcare costs for obesity and co-morbid conditions Work absenteeism, early retirement and premature death relating to co-morbidities Prevalence based PAF N/A N/A CHF2.69 billion (€1.91 billion 2009) N/A
Finkelstein et al. 2010[35], US All Medical costs absenteeism and presenteeism Cross-sectional $30.3 billion $42.8 billion $73.1 billion (€51.92 billion 2009) 59%
Borg et al. 2005 [33], Sweden Hospital inpatient costs only Lost productivity due to increased mortality Longitudinal cohort SEK Billion: 2.17 SEK Billion: 2.93 SEK billion: 5.1 (€0.54 billion 2009) 58%