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Table 2 Services that were received by significantly fewer local health departments in 2012, compared to 2009

From: Changes in public health preparedness services provided to local health departments by regional offices in North Carolina: a comparison of two cross-sectional studies

Type of service % LHDs receiving service in 2009 % LHDs receiving service in 2012 p-value*
Planning assistance    
Assistance with pandemic influenza planning** 59 13 <0.001
Assistance with isolation and quarantine planning** 87 27 <0.001
Assistance with risk communication planning** 63 38 0.002
Communication and liaison assistance    
Facilitating relationships with local/regional preparedness partners** 93 76 0.003
Communicating information from public health epidemiologists in the region** 79 41 <0.001
Communicating relevant information from state and national preparedness meetings or professional conferences** 92 70 <0.001
Assistance with community preparedness education** 74 43 <0.001
Epidemiology and surveillance assistance (n = 10)    
Share NC DETECT data 63 30 <0.001
Promote the use of NC DETECT 65 46 0.017
Share NC HAN alerts 80 45 <0.001
Promote the use of NC HAN 89 59 <0.001
Facilitate access to NC HAN and/or Epi-X? 82 56 <0.001
Assist with an epidemiological investigation 54 21 <0.001
Review or edit epidemiology data collection instruments 43 16 <0.001
Analyze or assist with the analysis of epidemiological data 36 13 <0.001
Facilitate GIS data collection and/or use of GIS equipment 32 8 <0.001
Support/promote epi team 47 20 <0.001
Exercise assistance (n = 15)    
Provide guidance to the LHD about exercises** 99 81 <0.001
Plan a single-county/district exercise for the LHD** 44 23 0.005
Facilitate an after action review meeting for the LHD** 48 18 <0.001
Assist with the development of an after action report for the LHD** 62 28 <0.001
Assist with the development of an IP or CAP for the LHD** 60 33 <0.001
Assist with the implementation of an IP or CAP for the LHD** 77 24 <0.001
Plan a multi-county exercise for the region** 95 9 <0.001
Provide a multi-county exercise scenario for the region** 91 14 <0.001
Moderate or facilitate a multi-county exercise for the region** 89 13 <0.001
Assist with the development of an after action report for the region** 84 19 <0.001
Assist with the development of an IP or CAP for the region** 88 18 <0.001
Assist with the implementation of an IP or CAP for the region** 77 14 <0.001
Consultation and technical assistance (n = 9)    
Industrial hygiene** 84 51 <0.001
Use of personal protective equipment** 76 39 <0.001
Infection control 68 22 <0.001
Interpretation of state or national guidance 73 17 <0.001
Pharmacy-related issues 58 34 0.002
Public health event response (n = 15)    
Interpretation of local, state, or national guidance related to the event(s) 57 13 <0.001
Investigation of incidents or events in cooperation with response partners 54 10 <0.001
Development and/or refinement of epidemiological investigation tools 54 7 <0.001
Implementation of event control measures in cooperation with response partners 35 0 <0.001
Incident/event long-term follow-up 30 3 0.009
Deployment of SNS 16 0 0.031
Development and/or distribution of communication materials 41 0 <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: LHD Local Health Department, NC DETECT North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool, NC HAN North Carolina Health Alert Network, Epi-X Epidemic Information Exchange, GIS Geographic Information System, IP Improvement Plan, CAP Corrective Action Plan, SNS Strategic National Stockpile.
  2. *Fisher’s two-sided exact p-value.
  3. **Services that remain the responsibility of the reorganized regional offices. Note that other services are now primarily provided by other programs in the North Carolina Division of Health.